Mao then formed the Red Army and his followers elected him as the chairman of the Chinese Communist Party. Films of the Soviet Union were even shown to peasants and ordinary Chinese to show them what to aspire to. Thousands were imprisoned in solitary confinement and millions were sent off to "purify" themselves through labor in the countryside. "(Spence, 1990) The communes were used to group collective farms combined with local towns into huge centralized systems. Mao vormde ruim 26 jaar het gezicht van de Volksrepubliek China. "(Spence, 1990) The resultant was a famine that caused a great deal of damage. The first Five-Year Plan for the future of China was launched by Mao Zedong in 1953, in which the Soviet Union was held up as the model for development. 2) Mao's wife, Jiang Qing was the one who urged Mao to … They were organized into groups called the Red Guards, and Mao ordered the party and the army not to suppress the movement." "[V]arieties of radical groups who were not coordinated by central leadership, struggled with party leaders and with each other." In the 1960’s, Mao Zedong, revered as a god to his people, was able to completely change how China’s political and economic systems work. This however is not true. History In this video I summarize the life of Mao Zedong, also known as Chairman Mao, the communist dictator of China. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. Mao's vision for China was to transform China into a "strong, prosperous, independent, modern industrial socialist state by combining effective leadership with participation by the people." Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Mao Zedong (Dec. 26, 1893–Sept. The Chinese intellectual tradition of the past century can be defined by the concept of iconoclasm and nationalism. In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. Everything was described in military terminology; for example, labor was described as a military campaign. This was a system which involved grain rationing and also forced grain deliveries at fixed prices by the government that was imposed by Mao in 1953. A way he utilized was a slogan which said "Dare to Think, Dare to Act." Some of Mao’s military reforms and land redistributions proved unpopular with other party officials in Jiangxi; he dealt … (Spence, 1990) Due to the new economic development, a great deal of capital was required and this was provided from agriculture, which was the focus of the Chinese economy at the time. This caused "salinization, irrigation systems constructed in unsuitable areas, senseless deforestation, [and] poorly planned reforestation which caused damage to soil and water levels affection production on a large scale." Study for free with our range of university lectures! The elderly people were to be placed in "old peoples' happy homes" where they were made to work according to their ability. The aftermath of his plans and his revolution continued to change China, long after his death. Read more. The Cultural Revolution spanned from May 1966 to October 1976(the death of Mao marking the end of it.) Mao envisioned the Jiangxi Soviet as both a military stronghold against the nationalists and a laboratory for the trialling of communist economic and social policies. Collaborations were arranged among peasant families in harvesting and planting crops. The Cultural Revolution The effort by Mao Zedong to completely reform Communist China by eliminating traditional values and capitalist power What are we This resistance could not be expressed through the taking of land without an open rebellion. It has become more popularly known under the second slogan though. It promised China support in every field. Modification of the Basic Ideology of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China He was born December 26, 1893, in the small village of Shaoshan in Hunan province. Family life was again permitted and the old and the young were allowed to live together. There was even an attempt to introduce a great leap forward to poetry, which encouraged millions of people to try writing poetry which produced hundreds of thousands of folk tales and songs. (Michael, 1977) Everything was carried out with military exactness. The slaughtering of their animals at the time was called "wanton slaughter," and this reduced the animal population in large areas drastically. The first plan was successful, but the second called the Great Leap Forward was not. Even with all the taxes and labor, the Communists lacked the capital required to repay the Soviet government. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! China's First Five Year Plan "led to the growth of bureaucracy, new social inequalities and privileged elites. WAS MAO ZEDONG THE MOST BRUTAL TYRANT IN HISTORY?What made Mao Zedong so horrible? In June 1981, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) issued an of cial judgment of Mao Zedong, assessing. Mao Zedong’s infatuation with ideologies of past political figures, such as Marx and Lenin, are also crucial in understanding Mao’s rise and will be investigated how such philosophies could contribute to the calamitous revolution and where Mao broke away from Marx’s message. Read more. '"(Spence, 1990) The revolution was an attack on culture. In an attempt to re-assert his authority, Mao launched the 'Cultural Revolution' in 1966, aiming to purge the country of 'impure' elements and revive the revolutionary spirit. Mao and other Communist leaders set out to reshape Chinese society. With all of this though, Mao is still worshiped and praised in China today. He believed that this would be beneficial for the young people of China because they could learn proletarian values and the lifestyle. In order "[f]or China's heavy industry to keep up its rapid development, accordingly, production by the agricultural sector had to increase." One small-scale industrial development that was used were the "backyard steel furnaces." Mao Zedong tried to reduce China's dependency on foreign industry by instituting the 5-year Plan. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! *You can also browse our support articles here >. In 1966, two groups met to discuss the Wuhan incident which was a conflict between two hostile groups wanting to take over the city of Wuhan. "Bank rates that had been 70 percent to 80 percent per annum in December 1949 were brought down to 18 percent in 1950, and to 3 percent in 1951." "The average amount of grain available to each person in China's countryside, which had been 205 kilos in 1957 and 201 kilos in 1958, dropped to a disastrous 183 kilos in 1959, and a catastrophic 156 kilos in 1960." Diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in July 1974, he gradually lost control of his … The idea was to "use militarized manpower instead of capital equipment to speed up and increase economic production." Deng Xiao-Ping, as the Minister of Finance, played a major role in the drafting of China's First Five Year Plan. Mao Zedong shows how a revolution is to be carried out. In reality, it was not as successful as it was said to be. ""Thousands of intellectuals were beaten to death or died of their injuries. 1st Jan 1970 In 1958, in an attempt to introduce a more 'Chinese' form of communism, Mao launched the 'Great Leap Forward'. For example, running machines without oiling them, and not installing the machines on a level surface were some of the common mistakes made. The First Five Year Plan was from 1953-1957. This slowed the rate of collectivization. Despite the Great Leap was not very successful, it still brought on a several fundamental changes to China. Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. Jiang Qing along with some cultural workers deemed the Wuhan work as "a perfect example of politically erroneous writing, and warned that the Chinese cultural garden was overgrown with "'anti-socialist poisonous weeds. (Spence, 1990) These methods were carried out by Deng Xiaoping as the party secretary-general, and Liu Shaoqi who seemed to be Mao's possible successor. Even though the communists held no respect for the Kuomintang or their leader, Mao was willing to form temporary alliances which would help him achieve his long-term goals. "(Meisner, 1999) This allowed the Chinese Communist Party to be able to develop a plan for the nation's economic development. These people included children who suffered from the years of malnutrition brought on by the Great Leap. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. (Suyin, 1976) In some ways he achieved that. One of the main ones was the wrongly applied method of deep plowing used. Education This was an ideal area for the start of the First Five Year Plan. The Great Leap Forward . "(Meisner, 1999) This attempt distorted the social and political life of the People's Republic. As the First Five Year Plan, it moved China forward a great deal. The Revolution was an enormous catastrophe and it resulted in a huge number of peopled dying and important cultural monuments and items getting destroyed. 1. During this time, Mao attempted to encourage peasants to form communes which would increase production levels. Primary Sources Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong Born in every country is a leader, strategist, theorist, and a hero whose name will go down in history. They believed that the Chinese had a blind faith in literature and they wanted to destroy that blind faith. Mao was born on 26 December 1893 into a peasant family in Shaoshan, in Hunan province, central China. After World War II ended, Mao's army defeated Chiang's army and Chiang retreated. Mao was a Chinese communist leader and founder of the People's Republic of China. He started the Revolution in order to ensure the support of his followers, to recover from the Second Five Year Plan, and to bring China back onto the path of socialism. Despite all of this, the First Five Year Plan changed China enormously. Expensive equipment was ruined simply due to not being well informed. BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Mao Zedong (vereenvoudigd Chinees: 毛泽东; traditioneel Chinees: 毛澤東; pinyin: Máo Zédōng) (Shaoshan, 26 december 1893 – Peking, 9 september 1976) was een Chinees rebellenleider, dictator, partijleider en grondlegger van de Volksrepubliek China waarvan hij de eerste leider was. Mao's First Five Year Plan was utilized to increase the industrial and agricultural output of the People's Republic of China. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. The gradual transformation from private ownership to collectivization was to test whether collectivization was accepted or resisted. Liu Shaoqi. In early 1929, Mao and Zhu De led their armies into southern Jiangxi. him 70% right and 30% wrong, which is to say that his. "It was the Maoist response to the consequences of early industrialization." The rest of the day was also scheduled and the evenings usually included communal recreation. Agricultural collectivization was required at the time. In 1961 it fell to 154 kilos. Instead, the peasants resorted to the sabotage of farm implements and animals. The policy was abandoned and Mao's position weakened. This was the work of the communes and the communal labor teams. It lowered the average age of people dying and it caused a great deal of famine and death. From there on, Mao ruled with an "iron fist." Mao Zedong's policies to develop China. (Michael, 1977) "The people were assigned to squadrons, formed into companies, battalions, regiments and divisions, and in addition to the organization of labor in this form, these units were also to provide regular military training-for women as well as for men-in a people's militia." It ranged from parading through the streets wearing a dunce cap, to wearing a placard around their neck. "(Michael, 1977) Instead of an increase in production as was stated, there was actually a decline. This is from the current 185 million metric tons to a target of 240 million metric tons. "One will result in doing the work faster and better; the other slowly and not so well. This resulted in a restatement of the aims of the economic program on December 10. The Communists were more efficient. Company Registration No: 4964706. Read a biography about the life of Mao Zedong the Chinese communist leader responsible for the disastrous policies including the 'Great Leap Forward' and the 'Cultural Revolution'. The amount of working hours was reduced while the amount of pay was increased. Once China became weak and poor Mao Zedong took power. The goal of this was to bring China back onto the path to socialism and to secure Mao's power over the country. He attempted to show the "joys" and "advantages" of being communist. It was Mao's last revolutionary act and it turned into a great catastrophe. He took advantage of the financial state that the peasants were in. The Chinese initially received significant help from the Soviet Union, but relations soon began to cool. Only the peasants could provide both the labor and the tax that was required by the economic development. One-and-a-half million people died and much of the country's cultural heritage was destroyed. Even pigs at the time were starving; therefore they were allowed to roam. Mao stated that there were two possible methods of work. Mao's intention of changing China was fulfilled but the consequences were immense.