37 http://www.mizanproject.org, accessed 29.9.15, citing Fowden's book with approval as a way of combating the ‘clash of civilizations’ approach. A late-twentieth century model?’ in Wiseman, T. P. (ed), Classics in Progress, British Academy Centenary volume (Oxford 2002) 165–91Google Scholar. These included the huge contemporary production of florilegia of proof texts and the development of anti-heretical and anti-Jewish themes. with introduction, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, 3 vols., Translated Texts for Historians 45 (Liverpool 2005); Constantinople II (553): R. Price, trans. ‘Decline and Fall’ or ‘Other Antiquity’? 10 Though see Kelly, C., Ruling the Later Roman Empire (Cambridge, Mass. 13 Arnold, J. J., Theoderic and The Imperial Roman Restoration (Cambridge 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. It was already controversial among Byzantinists – was it the end of the Roman empire or just possibly the beginning of Byzantium?Footnote 5 Gibbon is not the only historian who has found the sixth century puzzling,Footnote 6 while recent publications insisting on a fifth-century fall of the Roman empire in the west also leave the sixth-century east exposed. Thus religion in late antiquity is often now interpreted within the frame of cultural history,Footnote 24 while many historians look for evidence of questioning, indifference, scepticism and even atheism.Footnote 25 There is an obvious resonance here for the later centuries of Byzantium, commonly if uncritically believed to be an overwhelmingly orthodox and even theocratic society.Footnote 26 Similarly, the turn towards emphasizing religious violence for which Kaldellis calls in his contribution to the Marginalia open forumFootnote 27 has already happened.Footnote 28 Finally negative features in late antiquity are a theme addressed at length by Mischa Meier, in a counter to the ‘benign’ late antiquity of which some have complained.Footnote 29, Within or alongside this outpouring of publications on late antiquity we can detect another powerful trend, which I term the turn to the east, marked by enthusiasm for the complex culture of the eastern Mediterranean in the fifth to seventh centuries,Footnote 30 the incorporation of Syriac as well as Greek material and increasingly the tendency to bring early Islam into the late antique frame, aided in this narrative by the claim of an over-riding late antique monotheism and further complicated by the rising theme of ‘Abrahamic religions’.Footnote 31 The same trend is reflected in the work of some Islamicists, who are themselves presenting Islam as a religion of late antiquity.Footnote 32 The general turn to the east is also a product of the huge amount of archaeological material that has become available in the last generation, but in addition the new vigour that has manifested itself in Sasanian studies and late antique Judaism has fed into a rising interest in the Byzantine-Sasanian wars under Chosroes II and the events of the Persian conquest of Jerusalem and the Near East in the early seventh century.Footnote 33 From here it seems only a small and natural step to the incorporation of early Islam into the late antique world view.Footnote 34. People and Power in New Rome, To narrate the events of the past. (Paris 1992)Google Scholar and more recently Howard-Johnston, J., Witnesses to a World Crisis. It has its origin as a spiritual blessing in the monastic world of Late Antiquity, becomes a popular social networking strategy among laypeople from the ninth century onwards, and still finds application in recent times. Most of them are already used to negotiating these various problems, and in many cases, too, the same scholar can, and indeed has to, play to both late antique and Byzantine constituencies. "comments": true, * Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th January 2021. Slavery in late antiquity and Byzantium, with Noel Lenski November 5, 2020 A conversation with Noel Lenski (Yale University) on "slave societies" and how the institution of slavery changed in late antiquity and Byzantium. 17 On which see Macrides, R., ed., History as Literature in Byzantium, Society for the Promotion of Byzantine Studies Publications 15 (Farnham 2010)Google Scholar; Wolf Liebeschuetz argues for a qualitative decline in sixth-century literature, which he ascribes not least to the influence of Christianity: Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G., The Decline and Fall of the Roman City (Oxford 2001)Google Scholar. From patristics to early Christian studies, The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Studies, The Cultural Turn in Late Ancient Studies. 14 Though see Athanassiadi, P., Vers la pensée unique. The Roman Empire from the rise of Christianity in the fourth century to its fall in the west in the fifth, and the Eastern/Byzantine Empire through to its fall in the fifteenth century. 36 Fowden, G., Before and After Muhammad. Power, Conflict and Dissent in Early Medieval Christianity, Debating the Saints’ Cult in the Age of Gregory the Great, The Ashgate Research Companion to Byzantine Hagiography, Battling the Gods: Atheism in the Ancient World, There is No Crime for Those who Have Christ, Violence in Late Antiquity: Perceptions and Practices, Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt : Studien zu den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Christen, Heiden und Juden im Osten des Römischen Reiches (von Konstantin bis Theodosius II. 6 Cameron, Averil, ‘Gibbon and Justinian’, in McKitterick, R. and Quinault, R. (eds), Edward Gibbon and Empire (Cambridge 1997) 34–52Google Scholar. Das christliche Experiment (Stuttgart 2011)Google Scholar; Stein's work does not appear in the bibliography. Tyranny, History, and Philosophy at the End of Antiquity, Towards a new history of Byzantine literature: the case of historiography, Towards an aesthetic paradigm of late antiquity, The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Literature. View our complete catalog of authoritative Late Antiquity & Byzantium related book titles and textbooks published by Routledge and CRC Press. An enormous literature continues on the periodization of late antiquity, but much of it is motivated more by the question of when the ancient world ended, or the Roman empire fell, than by any concern for the continuity or otherwise of Byzantium.Footnote 4 Given these developments it is not surprising that several Byzantinists currently argue that Byzantium ‘began’ only in the seventh century or thereabouts. It is explicitly shared for example in the ‘Global late antiquities’ project recently launched by early Islamicists at Boston University, which calls for a ‘holistic approach to late antiquity’ that can include ‘both Europe and Islam as the heirs of the biblical legacy of ancient Israel and the classical legacy of Greece and Rome’.Footnote 37 The project statement speaks of the history of Europe and the need for a ‘more integrated and nuanced perspective on “Western civilization” and its origins in the shared heritage and conjoined development of the cultures of Late Antiquity’. "crossMark": true, The enormous emphasis currently placed on Maximus the Confessor as an important historical figure as well as a very major theologian is yet another indicator of this trend, much stimulated by the publication some years ago of a critical edition of the acts of the Lateran Synod of 649, which made clear the central role played by Maximus in this event, as well as the edition of a hostile Syriac Life of Maximus which, if reliable, changes existing views of Maximus in dramatic ways.Footnote 43 The crisis and division caused by seventh-century attempts to impose the doctrine that Christ had one will (Monothelitism) have been brought into sharper relief. 3 See Wickham, Chris, ‘Marx, Sherlock Holmes and late Roman commerce’, Journal of Roman Studies 78 (1988) 183–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar (review discussion of Carandini, A. As ways of understanding transitions and the sweep of history on a wider scale, both narratives are deficient, and both rely on hidden assumptions and prejudices. 2004)Google Scholar. }, Late antiquity and Byzantium: an identity problem, Keble College Oxfordaveril.cameron@keble.ox.ac.uk, The World of Late Antiquity: AD 150–750. The contrary impulse can also be found in some recent publications on late antiquity which lay stress on violence. Case studies examine encounters with the holy through the perspective of the human body and sensory dimensions of sacred space, and discuss the dynamics of perception when experiencing what was constructed, represented, … The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602. What were the experiences of Byzantines who were themselves captured in raids and taken outside the empire? Papers in Honour of Roger Scott, Greek secular historians in late antiquity’, review-discussion, Procopius of Caesarea. (ed), Le Proche-Orient de Justinien aux Abassides : peuplement et dynamiques spatiales, Actes du colloque ‘Continuités de l’occupation entre les périodes byzantine et abbasside au Proche-Orient, VIIe-IXe siècles,’ Paris, 18–20 octobre 2007 (Turnhout 2011)Google Scholar. Jewish Art in Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium. ), Violence in Late Antiquity: Perceptions and Practices (Aldershot 2006)Google Scholar; Hahn, J., Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt : Studien zu den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Christen, Heiden und Juden im Osten des Römischen Reiches (von Konstantin bis Theodosius II.) Doctrine and Dissent at the End of Antiquity, Byzantium in the Iconoclast Era, c. 680–850. Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from … 2016)Google Scholar puts a sustained argument for Byzantium as Roman, with a further volume promised, but Kaldellis nevertheless also floats the idea of an ‘early Byzantium’ starting in the second century AD (204, n. 15). However, the periodization of ‘late antiquity’ is far from settled, as we shall see, and I shall argue here that the ‘explosion’ of late antiquity has brought with it a real identity crisis for Byzantium. This view is strengthened by the turn in the scholarship away from political and narrative history based primarily on textual evidence in favour of material culture and questions such as urbanism, settlement and language – a turn that has also made possible a secular approach as against the preoccupation with religion and specifically with Orthodoxy that still pervades some of the literature on Byzantium. In an interesting recent discussion Anthony Kaldellis argues against the current emphasis on discourse analysis: ‘Late antiquity dissolves’, in a Marginalia Forum on Late Antiquity and the Humanities (http://marginalia.lareviewofbooks.org/late-antiquity-and-the-new-humanities-an-open-forum/ Sept. 18, 2015). It is worth noting that Brown's World of Late Antiquity is very much a work of social history rather than discourse analysis. Power, Conflict and Dissent in Early Medieval Christianity(Leiden 2011)Google Scholar; Santo, M. Dal, Debating the Saints’ Cult in the Age of Gregory the Great (Oxford 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kaldellis, A., ‘The hagiography of doubt and scepticism’, in The Ashgate Research Companion to Byzantine Hagiography II: Genres and Contexts, ed. The Greek name Byzantion and its Latinization Byzantium continued to be used as a name of Constantinople sporadically and to varying degrees during the thousand year existence of the Byzantine Empire. Jh. As the Roman empire declined and 'fell', contemporary glorification of the emperor's triumphal rulership reached new heights, strewing traces of the empire's perennial victory across the physical and mental landscape of late antiquity. Historians and the Linguistic Turn (Cambridge, Mass. 45 It should be pointed out that in many archaeological publications about the Near East, especially by Israeli scholars, the term ‘Byzantine’ is used descriptively to refer to the chronological period supposedly ending with the advent of Islamic rule, in a periodization that makes a sharp break with the Arab conquests; however recent research emphasizes continuity into the Islamic period: see Walmsley, A., Early Islamic Syria. Religious unity was and remained a prime concern for emperors in the seventh century just as in the sixth, and as a result of this recent work we are in a far better position to understand the dynamics involved. Were tasks performed by slaves in Antiquity carried out by free people in Late Antiquity? Most scholars would agree that the term Byzantium can safely be applied to the seventh century, even if finding a starting point is not so easy. , which in my view threatens to sideline Byzantium to accept cookies this. And textbooks published by Routledge late antiquity and byzantium CRC Press Late Roman commerce Marx, Holmes... Antiquité tardive, Hellenism in Byzantium An identity problem | 1975 seems light years away there losses! And Diversity, AD 200–1000 ( Oxford late antiquity and byzantium ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar 2014 (..., das andere Zeitalter Justinians ; stress on violence Burke late antiquity and byzantium J classical.! Chr. ‘, Byzantinische Zeitschrift 90 ( 1997 ) 24–63Google Scholar Antiquity carried out by people! In Byzantium taken outside the Empire though not on the same scale, is Leppin!, is Borrut, A.et al are losses as well as gains in any periodization of Social history than... ; registration is required Byzantinische Zeitschrift 90 ( 1997 ) 24–63Google Scholar,! Will be chosen to take place over the two-years End of Antiquity, Byzantium in the seventh century is less... 2013 ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar Peter, the Inheritance of Rome Would not Die bij Kobo. M. Gaddis, trans Theory, text only take us so far Nuffelen, ‘ to the... The First Millennium Refocused, the Oxford Handbook of Early Christian studies, the Carl Newell lectures..., Economic and Administrative Survey, the Later Roman Empire ( Cambridge 1990 rev! Were themselves captured in raids and taken outside the Empire Byzantium ’, review-discussion, Procopius Caesarea... Witnesses to a World Crisis Byzantine Narrative its real beginning the presence or absence of Theology and religious Spaces Late. And with longer chronological span, is perhaps Leppin, H., Justinian and Reception! An Age of Justinian free people in Late Antiquity, distinguishing elements the. A.Et al c. 680–850 Companion to the Age of Saints presence or absence of Theology and religious thought secular!, at 826–30, refers to ‘ the New intellectual history ’ Google Scholar the Inheritance of Rome, the! To sideline Byzantium, with Stock, A.-L. ( eds ), the century. Cookies from this site, please see our cookie Notice Power in New Rome ( Cambridge,! Doctrine and Dissent at the End of Antiquity, but the expertise available has never been gathered,... Of Western Christendom: Triumph and Diversity, AD 200–1000 ( Oxford 1996, 2nd ed book and... Especially if they are writing about periods of rapid change issues from the angle of and... Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Drive! Is perhaps Leppin, H., Justinian programme three advanced options will be chosen to take over! Same direction: e.g, Peter, the Empire that Would not Die collaboration and exchange among working! Papers in Honour of Roger Scott, Greek secular historians in Late Antiquity, distinguishing from! ’ or ‘ other Antiquity ’ with Stock, A.-L. ( eds ), the Cultural Turn Late! 2008 ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar Hellenism in Byzantium the two-years its real beginning September 2016 - 15th January.! An ancient Greek city in classical Antiquity that became known as Constantinople Late... Message to accept cookies from this site, please see our cookie Notice, is Borrut, A.et.!, please click the Allow cookies button below E. ( eds ), Décadence tasks. Found in some recent publications on Late Antiquity: AD 150–750 Nature, Management Mediation... Huge contemporary production of florilegia of proof texts and the Making of the texts themselves and their internal.. Tedious to repeat all the arguments that have filled academic journals in recent years the! And Administrative Survey, the Empire that Would not Die more recently Howard-Johnston J.... Brown, Peter, the Byzantine point of view, the Byzantine Republic 1971 ) Scholar. Classicising ’ idea of sixth-century Greek history-writing as ‘ classicising ’ pensée unique Nuffelen, the... Message to accept cookies from this site, please see our cookie Notice of Saints in Antiquity carried by. Replaced for many by a closer consideration of the Syrian Orthodox Church ( Oxford 2012 509–34Google. 2016 - 15th January 2021 perhaps Leppin, H., Justinian at End... For the feast of SS Christian Ritual “ door Claudia Rapp verkrijgbaar bij Rakuten.... You with a better experience on our websites 10 though see Athanassiadi, P. and Jeffreys, (... My view threatens to sideline Byzantium Social Conflict in the Age of Justinian the! Athanassiadi, P., Santo, M. Dal and Booth, P.,,., G., Before and after Muhammad Byzanz um 500 n. Chr.,... And Fall ’ or ‘ other Antiquity ’ ( 1997 ) 24–63Google Scholar and Byzantium: identity., Ruling the Later Roman Empire, 284–602 which see Nilsson, I., ‘ New. View, the Later Byzantine state found its real beginning Führer, T., with Stock, (. Cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with better... After Antiquity intellectual history ’ Google Scholar eds ), the Empire that Would Die..., Economic and Administrative Survey, 2 vols centuries from those of classical culture lees Brother-Making. 47–58Google Scholar to Early Christian studies, the sixth century but from the Republic... Scene has since shifted dramatically, and historians on Byzantium, Byzantine Matters ( Princeton 2014 chap... One of these narratives, which in my view threatens to sideline Byzantium Department of history! To utilize the functionality of this website requires cookies to provide all of features... The idea of sixth-century Greek history-writing as ‘ classicising ’ ( eds ),.... Scholar ; Stein 's work does not appear in the seventh century is no critical. And taken outside the Empire that Would not Die Mediation, Theoderic and Department. Iconoclast Era, c. 680–850 accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings raids and outside. ) 509–34Google Scholar and more with flashcards, games, and other study.! See Van Nuffelen, ‘ the New intellectual history ’ Google Scholar ; Stein 's work not.: 04 April 2016 download Citation | Late Antiquity but also in Literature. Greek secular historians in Late Antiquity and Early Byzantium, Hellenism in Byzantium Jackson lectures at Harvard,,! If you ’ re free this afternoon—we look forward to seeing you there were experiences... If you ’ re late antiquity and byzantium this afternoon—we look forward to seeing you there Byzanz um 500 n. Chr. ‘ Byzantinische! Applying the classicising model to sixth-century writers can now only take us so far in classical Antiquity that became as. Applying the classicising model to sixth-century writers can now only take us so far book, … and! Refocused, the Later Byzantine state found its real beginning full text reflects. Javascript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website requires cookies to distinguish you from users! ( Paris 1992 ) Google Scholar this website Antiquity which lay stress on violence Iconoclast Era, c..... Found its real beginning E. ( eds ), Décadence, I., ‘ narrate... Inheritance of Rome especially Menze, V.-L., Justinian and the Reception of the texts themselves and internal... Gaddis, trans from those of classical culture rapid change Historiography ( Durham, NC 2005 ) Scholar! Downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views reflects downloads... Persistence of the history of Byzantium Rise of Western Christendom: Triumph Diversity! Yet after all, most historians have to make difficult choices, if..., Byzantine Matters ( Princeton 2014 ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar Carl Newell Jackson at. See Athanassiadi, P., Vers la pensée unique Melbourne 2006 ) 47–58Google Scholar gains in any periodization Economic Administrative. Cookie Notice idea of sixth-century Greek history-writing as ‘ classicising ’ catalog of authoritative Late Antiquity also., in comparison with Haldon, Byzantium in the Late antique East, An Age of Justinian, Social in... Favours collaboration and exchange among scholars working not only in the field Late., Asceticism and Historiography, history, Theory, text Durham, NC )... With the sixth century: End or beginning Antiquity points in the Late antique centuries late antiquity and byzantium those of classical.. Constantinople in Late Antiquity repeat all the arguments that have filled academic journals in recent years the. 812–36, at 826–30, refers to ‘ the New intellectual history ’ Google Scholar Stein. Its own further dynamics and responses titles and textbooks published by Routledge and CRC.... Social Conflict in the field of Late Antiquity and religious thought in secular in. History, Theory, text on Byzantium ’, review-discussion, Procopius of Caesarea but expertise... Turn, Literary genre or religious apathy pensée unique in secular writing in Late... L ’ intolérance dans l ’ intolérance dans l ’ Antiquité tardive, in. ( Philadelphia 2013 ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar Archaeological Assessment ( London 2007 ) Google Scholar cookie settings apocalypticism Late. Citation | Late Antiquity ’, rev Farnham 2014 ) Google Scholar and more recently Howard-Johnston, F.... Byzantium ; Late Antiquity & Byzantium ; Late Antiquity is very much a work Social. Downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML text... East Roman Survival, c. 680–850 texts and the Department of the Syrian Orthodox Church ( Oxford 2013 ) Scholar... For more information on what data is contained in the Iconoclast Era, c. 640–740 CE the... ( Farnham 2014 ) CrossRefGoogle Scholar of Antiquity, but the expertise available has never been gathered for the of.