If you are uncertain about the classification of a lake or river and the dimensional standards that apply, contact your local planning and zoning office. 2d). The study of these lake basin features is known as . Wular lake (Jammu & Kashmir) is the largest freshwater lake in India. These results support the contention relating much of lake nomenclature to linguistic history, but that where linguistic flexibility occurs (Ireland, Scotland and Wales), lake size is also an important feature of naming patterns. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. For example, the NLA dataset includes only a small subset of the U.S.'s six million lakes (Winslow et al., 2014), and we can think of lakes that could alter the patterns we observed to some degree: for example, two of New Hampshire's largest lakes, Lake Winnipesaukee and Lake Sunapee, which were not in the NLA dataset, do not follow the state's 100% Name Lakes pattern, owing potentially to their multi‐syllabic native name origins, which sound better to the ear when preceded by lake. This web page shows only a small excerpt of our lake research. Okauchee Lake in Waukesha County is an example of a lake in this study type with long-term data. Ecoregions where Lake Name was more common were: Southern Florida Coastal Plain (XIII), Southern Coast Plain (XII) and Eastern Coastal Plains (XIV). Fluvial lakes. In 1957, Hutchinson published a monograph that is regarded as a landmark discussion and classification of all major lake types, their origin, morphometric characteristics, and distribution. These states were largely settled by English colonists, and the lake naming convention likely followed the standards observed in their country of origin. In particular, 100% of the lakes in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain were called Lake Names (Fig. To assess the nomenclature of U.S. lakes, we started with the full NLA dataset for 1157 lakes. Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds. Buy cipla tadalafil. A. Early History of the lake family. A lake is a large body of natural water accumulated in a depression. Boxplots summarising the results of the logistic regressions for the relationships between lake nomenclature and lake (a) surface area, (b) longitude, (c) latitude and (d) maximum depth. George Evelyn Hutchinson (1903–1991) provided one of the most extensive surveys available on the origins of lake basins in the first chapter of his four-volume series, A Treatise on Limnology ( Hutchinson, 1957 ). Lake area was a significant predictor of a lake's name: as lakes increased in size, the likelihood of being called Lake Name significantly increased (predicted logit = −1.55(±0.10) + 0.29(±0.05) × ln (lake area); Χ2 = 43.06, P < 0.0001; Fig. The hypothesised relationship between lake nomenclature and U.S. settlement and colonisation history is more complicated, requiring a simultaneous understanding of settlement patterns by European colonists, as well as the hereditary relationships of the dominant immigrant languages. Given the increasing amount of lake information available in national databases (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Lakes Assessment), the last time we embarked on this discussion with each other, it seemed a propitious moment to confront this question of lake nomenclature directly with data. A termination of many names of places and families, as Kerslake, Shiplake, Aslake, Timberlake, Westlake, Eastlake. States where more than 50% of all waterbodies had a Lake Name were Maryland, Virginia and Florida, with California and Connecticut exhibiting an even divide in their Lake Name versus Name Lake waterbodies. A state‐by‐state analysis showed similar patterns, but may be influenced by small sample sizes in certain states. In Douglas County there are three lake classifications. This was about 32% of all the recorded Lake's in the USA. Lakes Portal data, as well as the U.S. EPA for their NLA data and Wikipedia. In the early stages a lake contains little organic material and has a poorly developed littoral zone. All single variable (lake area, latitude, state, longitude and ecoregion) logistic regression models predicting lake nomenclature were compared using the corrected Akaike information criterion (AICc). If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, All missing waterbody names in the NLA were checked in the NHD and on Google Earth to help ascertain their nomenclature. A Data Lake is a storage repository that can store large amount of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. SOLUTION LAKES. Lake, any relatively large body of slowly moving or standing water that occupies an inland basin of appreciable size. The most Lake families were found in the USA in 1880. They are usually found in low lying areas and are fed from streams, rivers and runoff from the surrounding area. Tadalafil tablets 20 mg spc. Aggregated together, Scotland, Ireland and Wales had up to an order of magnitude more Lake Names than Name Lakes (Table 2). Surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. Our examination of lake nomenclature across the continental U.S.A. generally supported our hypotheses. While we are not historians, we thought that general knowledge of settlement patterns by language or country of origin could be generally related, such as the southward and westward trends of non‐English immigration. We conclude that there is evidence for lakes to have a Lake Name syntax in English when they have a larger surface area, or when they occur in a region where the Gaelic forms of English, as well as the Romance Languages, have had a significant influence. The probability of a waterbody having a Lake Name in the contiguous U.S.A. increased moving southward, as expected (χ2 = 31.76, P < 0.0001; Fig. Also, as we suspected, lake depth did not play a role in lake naming. In addition to the continental analyses, we compared the prevalence of Lake Names versus Name Lakes among Level III EPA ecoregions and states (Fig. Classification suggests that None of those states had many large lakes, as would be expected if their Lake Names were driven solely by size, so it is possible that subsequent migrations of settlers from countries where Romance languages or Gaelic were spoken (e.g., Irish potato famine migrants arriving in the mid 1800s) may have influenced lake naming convention. Analysis of available databases of lake nomenclature in Europe and Canada suggests that these geographical shifts in lake names may be due to the main European colonist source countries that settled these regions, with Lake Name predominating in countries where Gaelic and Romance linguistic influences were strongest. In contrast, Lake Name dominates 80% of lakes in Wales, where the Celtic form of ‘Llyn’ as lake is most commonly used. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: What Is in a “Lake” Name? We examined the potential drivers of lake naming patterns using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment database of. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers and Alan Steinman for useful comments on an earlier version of this article. Our final dataset consisted of 814 waterbodies named lakes. 1969 Chardonnay first planted. 1) to assess whether there were regional differences in lake nomenclature. Interestingly, the parts of Great Britain and Ireland (Scotland, Wales and Ireland) where Gaelic origins are dominant also show a more varied form of lake syntax than does England. A lake (from the Latin word lacus) is an inland body of water, not part of the ocean, that is larger and deeper than a pond and is localized at the bottom of a basin. By contrast, British Columbia, a province heavily dominated by English settlers, exhibited only 4% of its lakes as having a Lake Name, and no other province exhibited over 25% of lakes with Lake Name. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. We are grateful to J.P. Doubek for his assistance in preparing the GIS map, and we thank the Starbucks on the corner of St. Denis and Ontario Streets in Montréal for providing the caffeine that fuelled our initial conversation about the intriguing case of lake nomenclature. Our primary driver variables were lake surface area, maximum depth, latitude, and longitude; lake surface area and maximum depth were ln‐transformed to meet assumptions of normality and equal variance. In Middle English, lake, as a descendant of the Old English word, also could mean "stream; river gully; ditch; marsh; grave; pit of hell," and this might have influenced the form of the borrowed word. Particularly in temperate zones, such conditions favour a plentiful oxygen content, and the lake is said to be oligotrophic. By solving the logistic regression equation with the predicted odds ratio of the logit = 0.5, we determined that the lake surface area at which there was an equal probability that a lake would either be called Lake Name or Name Lake occurred at 1100 km2 (lakes larger than this size represent 0.00004% of lakes globally in the Downing et al. Learn more. Data Exploration. Lake Baikal Seal All waterbodies included in the NLA were permanent freshwater lakes, reservoirs or ponds with a surface area >4 ha and a maximum depth ≥1 m (Peck et al., 2013). For all the U.K. lakes, we used the same criteria as for the U.S. lakes: i.e., waterbodies had to be >4 ha in size, with ponds and reservoirs excluded. California and Florida have had a strong Spanish influence, which could help explain their use of Lake Name, as is used in that language. In 1840 there were 239 Lake families living in New York. This database contains the names of 152 lakes (most >50 ha in surface area) sampled by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency (Free et al., 2007) as part of the creation of a reference‐based typology and ecological assessment system. There is, however, a lack of consensus on definitions used to distinguish between lakes and ponds. Regardless of lake origin, we observed the same significant relationship between lake area and lake nomenclature. We have not been immune to such discussions at various points in our careers. States using exclusively Name Lake were Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and West Virginia (Fig. Among U.S. states, we observed highly variable patterns (Fig. Probably not from lacus, a lake, as no consideralile body of Waaler exists in some of the localities so called ; but either from lalw as applied to any small rivulet in the western counties, or from a hard pronunciation of the A- Sax. Whether a lake is small, big or very large. 16. Our analysis of lake names assumed that lake nomenclature has not changed significantly over time. We investigated the nomenclature of lakes using the U.S. EPA National Lakes Assessment (NLA), a comprehensive survey of waterbodies in the contiguous U.S.A. in 2007. "body of water surrounded by land and filling a depression or basin," early 12c., from Old French lack (12c., Modern French lac) and directly from Latin lacus "pond, pool, lake," also "basin, tank, reservoir" (related to lacuna "hole, pit"), from PIE *laku- "body of water, lake, sea" (source also of Greek lakkos "pit, tank, pond," Old Church Slavonic loky "pool, puddle, cistern," Old Irish loch "lake, pond"). Gaelic speakers (in Ireland, Scotland and Wales) predominantly use Lake Name nomenclatures. A closer examination of some state‐by‐state history may help explain the higher than expected use of the non‐English Lake Name format in certain states. While this list was not populated by lakes in a randomised, stratified design as done in the NLA and did not provide data on lake size, it provided a framework for estimating coarse lake nomenclature patterns in Canada. The waterbodies sampled were chosen in a randomised, stratified design to include coverage of waterbodies in five lake area categories (4–10 ha, >10–20 ha, >20–50 ha, >50–100 ha and >100 ha), 48 states and aggregated Omernik level III ecoregions (Peck et al., 2013). 1). Tadalafil cost in india. Man‐made lakes (but not named Reservoirs, as these were excluded from the analyses) had to be very large (7700 km2) to have an equal probability of being called a Lake Name versus Name Lake, in comparison to naturally formed lakes, where the breakpoint occurred at a surface area of 351 km2. As such, the Laurentian Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) serve as classic examples, although they were not included in our analyses. Within the global hydrologic cycle, freshwater lakes constitute only about 0.009 percent of all free water, which amounts to less than 0.4 percent of all continental fresh water. The continental lake nomenclature relationships exhibited significant differences among ecoregions (Fig. … Similar to the U.S.A., we observed that larger lakes by surface area were significantly more likely to be Lake Name than Name Lake across Great Britain and Ireland (χ2 = 14.19, P = 0.0002). by Craig Mische on September 22, 2015. Differences in state sizes and number of lakes per state likely account for some this variation. Finally, our expectation of lake name convention based on the origin of European settlement was largely substantiated by a comparison of lakes across Canada for which only name information by province was readily available. "body of water surrounded by land and filling a depression or basin," early 12c., from Old French lack (12c., Modern French lac) and directly from Latin lacus "pond, pool, lake," also "basin, tank, reservoir" (related to lacuna "hole, pit"), from PIE *laku- "body of water, lake, sea" (source also of Greek lakkos "pit, tank, pond," Old Church Slavonic loky "pool, puddle, cistern," Old Irish loch "lake, pond"). While each lake is unique and deserving of an individual management plan, it is impractical and unrealistic for broad units of government to strive to manage all lakes individually. A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is flooded by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. However, the case of Vermont does help further support our colonisation hypothesis: there was considerable immigration of francophones from Québec, Canada, through the (Lake) Champlain Valley that occurred in Vermont's early years, resulting in the state name of ‘Vert mont’ or Green Mountain. The 11 major lake types are tectonic lakes, volcanic lakes, landslide lakes, gla… Further investigation revealed that in the French and Spanish languages, the only limnological nomenclature possible is Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively). Lake – Classification of Lakes Lakes are among the most varied features of the earth’s surface. Across the ecoregions, Name Lakes represented >75% of all waterbodies in the Western Forested Mountains (II), Mostly Glaciated Dairy Region (VII), Glaciated Upper Midwest and Northeast (VIII), Xeric West (III), South Central Cultivated Great Plains (V), Corn Belt and Northern Great Plains (VI), Willamette and Central Valleys (I), and Great Plains Grass and Shrublands (IV). Of a list of 814 lakes with this binary nomenclature, almost 20% had a Lake Name, with the other 80% being a Name Lake. About 100 lakes throughout the State have been monitored at this level by the USGS since mid-1980. Virginia was originally colonised by the Spanish (Weber, 1992; Adams, 2001) and later received French Huguenot settlers from Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s (Hendricks, 2006). Lakes are commonly classified based on their productivity. Notable lakes with significant ice scouring in their origins include the Laurentian Great Lakes (Canada, USA), Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (Canada), the fjord lakes in Norway, several lakes in the English Lake District (Figure 1), Lago Maggiore (Italy), Lac Leman (France, Switzerland), Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), and innumerable small lakes carved in the pre-Cambrian shield in Canada and … All analyses were conducted in JMP v.11.0.0 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, U.S.A.). Lakes in this classification have the least restrictive rules for property owners. 3), mirroring the longitudinal and latitudinal results described above (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 29.93, P = 0.005). There was no effect of maximum depth on lake nomenclature (P = 0.23; Fig. Lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland appears to be related to the etymology of the predominant languages spoken, despite the linguistic dilution that likely occurred through trade and invasions by other linguistic groups, including the Vikings, Romans, Saxons and Normans. In England, 98% of the lakes are referred to by Name Lake (Table 2), with only 10 incidences of Lake Name out of 481 lakes total. 3). Note that the naming convention of ‘lake’ did not necessarily indicate that a waterbody was naturally formed, as some of the ‘lakes’ were defined in the NLA as having been of man‐made origin. We explored potential drivers of lake nomenclature in the U.S.A. using data obtained from the NLA, focusing on variables that likely influenced a lake's naming convention. We had to exclude 61 of these lakes because no names were listed, or only a proper name was listed without specifying the order of ‘lake’ and the name of waterbody. e.g., endemic species . The dominance of different Canadian provinces by either English or French settlement provided an excellent opportunity for comparing lake nomenclature patterns in another country in North America. Compensation and Classification is responsible for the development and administration of the city’s classification program; however, every employee has a responsibility to ensure its success. We developed a series of hypotheses that could be narrowed down to one overarching one: nomenclature of U.S. lakes reflects an interaction of settlement history and origin and lake size. The simplest classification is based on the dimension o f a lake. Low productive oligotrophic lakes are generally deep and clear with little aquatic plant growth. As erosion progresses and as lake enrichment and organic content increase, the lake … Before excluding them, we noted that 100% of all ponds and reservoirs in the NLA had the naming convention of Name Pond or Name Reservoir. 4), with highly significant differences in lake nomenclature (likelihood ratio test, χ2 = 117.75, P < 0.0001). Our analysis suggests that colonisation influence based on the historical immigration patterns of different linguistic groups likely played a role in lake naming patterns, which is a similar finding to what was observed in a study of the nomenclature of Midwestern U.S. streams (Raup, 1957). Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. The relationship with lake size was based on a basic and perhaps misguided intuition about human psychology. We note, however, that some lakes may have changed their nomenclature over time, as different waves of colonizers occupied the same regions, making definitive conclusions regarding the historical influences sometimes murky. This problem is especially apparent in North America because the nomenclature of lakes across the continent appears to be variable, with ‘Name Lake’ occurring frequently, such as in Trout Lake, but also ‘Lake Name’, as in Lake Sunapee. Moving westward and southward in the U.S.A., there would have been an increasing influence of other languages and settler groups, especially Scottish, Irish, French and Spanish. Connecticut is represented by only six lakes in the NLA, which may account for its high Lake Name usage. That Which We Call a Lake by Any Other Name, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_loughs_of_Ireland, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada. We believe that our coarse analyses on lake naming patterns, as well as an examination of linguistic lineages, may provide insight into the observed geographical patterns and help explain why certain regions have a greater incidence of Lake Name. Interestingly, the relationship between lake area and lake name was stronger for the naturally formed lakes (χ2 = 34.21, P < 0.0001) than for man‐made lakes (χ2 = 10.34, P = 0.001), indicating that historical factors may play a role in lake nomenclature since natural lakes would have been named earlier than the more recently formed reservoirs. (2004). Next in line are Recreational Development lakes such as Chippewa and Lobster. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Why several parts of the Eastern seaboard – in particular, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Connecticut, as well as scattered states in the central U.S.A. – use Lake Name is less immediately clear. Hutchinson presented in it a comprehensive analysis of the origin of lakes and proposed what is a widely accepted classification of lakes according to their origin. 15 The simplest classification is the dimension of a lake. Whether a lake is small, big or v ery large. All four eastern states have a long history of English colonisation and were part of the original 13 English colonies, and hence, the dominance of Lake Name in those states is contradictory to our original hypotheses. We obtained data on lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Northern Ireland using data obtained on 31 March 2016 from the U.K. Pursuing other historical events, it appears that there were early appearances of the Spanish and French in the Carolinas as well (Edgar, 1998). 1, A Referenced Based Typology and Ecological Assessment System for Irish Lakes – Preliminary Investigations, The Backcountry Towns of Colonial Virginia, The development of a GIS‐based inventory of standing waters in Great Britain together with a risk‐based prioritization protocol, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment, History of South Dakota: Fourth Edition, Revised, Lake shoreline in the contiguous United States: quantity, distribution and sensitivity to observation resolution. You can find lakes on any of the world’s continents. a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land, a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal, any of numerous bright translucent organic pigments. This relationship was primarily driven by lakes in Scotland, the only country that individually exhibited a significant relationship between lake nomenclature and lake size (χ2 = 25.62, P < 0.0001; all other countries had P ≥ 0.09). Finally, in the other dominant Germanic ‘West Teutonic’ language (German), the word for lake ‘See’ almost always comes second (e.g., Müggelsee), as in English‐speaking Great Britain, where Name Lake also dominates. e.g. The chemical-biological changes within a lake’s history offer a fine example of ecological succession. The flow of a river is usually not straight but the river bends and meanders throughout … Because there were only two Irish lakes matching our criteria in the U.K. Lake Portal dataset, we used the List of loughs of Ireland (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_loughs_of_Ireland; accessed 12 April 2016) for Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use, The Best and Worst Country in the World: Perspectives on the Early Virginia Landscape, Applications of the NHD at the U.S. environmental protection agency, The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments, Iberia and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Vol. 2a). When ice sheets moved over flat rock surface with weakened areas of fissures, the rock could splinter and loosen to form the basin of “glac… Buy cheap generic drugs online. Of the 814 U.S. ‘lakes’, 379 (47%) were defined in the NLA as having a man‐made origin, and 435 were naturally formed. To test our hypothesis on settlement origin in North America, we also examined a list of 1722 Canadian lakes obtained from Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_lakes_of_Canada) using click‐throughs to provincial sites (accessed 13 September 2015). Unlike France and Spain, where Lake Name (Lac Nom or Lago Nombre, respectively), is always used due to linguistic convention, there was much more variability in lake nomenclature in Great Britain and Ireland. There is also documented French Huguenot and Acadian immigration into the Carolinas, with South Carolina having the largest French population of the 13 original colonies (Edgar, 1998). The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. 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