", The Stag said "When I first came here, there was nothing but one tine on either side of my head, and there was nothing of this forest but one oak sapling, and that grew into a an oak of a hundred branches, and today there is nothing of it [left] but a red stump. This may be the result of a misinterpretation of an earlier form (see n.355 above), or it could be a comment on the relative cultural status of the two parties, with the use of stone (or stone-tipped) spears being a function of the primative 'pre-cultural' representation of Ysbaddaden and the monstrous/pre-Christian demographic, as opposed to the groomed, shaved and iron-using Christian court of Arthur (see p.### ff. 273 Enrydrec merch Tutuathar. See p.### below. Their names, particularly that of Aethlem, suggest an Anglo-Saxon derivation. Then said Arthur, "Oh! 'Arthur in hosting'. This offers a fascinating, if inconclusive, insight into the relationship between these two texts, and the fertile hetereoglossia that was occasionally responsible to new formations at the … For a discussion of the 'broad' humour at play here see Sheehan (2005) and pp.### below. Spoke his father to him "O boy, why do you blush? the Landsend peninsula. I am not aware of any other references to either father or daughter elsewhere in the Welsh tradition. And when he saw it, the king took counsel where he should find a wife. I want the tusk of Ysgithyrwyn Pen Baedd368 to shave with. 86 Mab Alun Dyfed The name of this son of Alun Dyfed, like the names of the next two figures that follow, is not given. Patrick K. Ford This is one of the very early Arthurian tales, and of course it is Welsh. 355 Bannawc lit. n.296 above. 'White Track'
328 Kanyt oes hoedyl itaw namyn hynny elwyf gan vr lit. Neither the place-name itself (presumably the focus of an onomastic legend) nor the nearby Porth Cerddin survive, but the identification of a Cil Coed in the parish of Ludchurch near Narbeth suggests that location on the South Pembrokeshire coast seems the most likely. "that will be coming to you". The ones who went on the shoulders of the salmon were Cai and Gwrhyr Gwalstawd Ieithoedd. See p.### for the possible
significance of this traditional Arthurian feat within Culhwch ac Olwen. "who can do huntmanship on that dog"
383 Mabon mab Modron. 362 Gwlgawt Gododin. Eskeir (Mod W. Esgair) can mean either a leg or a ridge, while Conyn Cawn may simply mean 'Reed-Stalk', but possibly echoes the Dyfed idiom Conyn 'grumbler'. No-one who has come to ask for that312 has gone [away] with their life.". Fflam mab Nwyfre ('Flame son of Sky') is otherwise unknown, but apiece with the other radient/celestial associations of this group of figures. ", Spoke Arthur: "That [must be] true. Her name (< *Rigantona) is suggestive of divine origins (c.f. Whoever would see her would love her completely. 'Taliesin Head of [the] Bards'. Osla Gyllellfawr approached, with Manawydan son of Llŷy and Cacamwri, Arthur's servant, and Gwyngelli, and closed in on him. The challenge of these anoethau appears to be in yoking the animals together as much as their acquisition. This particular sequence is closely paralleled by the description of the heroine Olwen (see text here). Their capture is not stipulated in the anoethau, but it seems likely it was either lost at some stage in the text's transmission or conflated with the requirement to secure Drudywn the whelp of Greid son of Eri. We have already noted (see p.###) that this image of a demon (or angel) fighting among a human army echoes the primitive idea of ancestral spirits joining the tribal host (often in the form of monstrous zoomorphic figures). ", "Though you may get that[...] I want Melyn Gwanhwyan and the Ych Brych354 both yoked together. "it went to life over life with him"
514 yna lit. And my lord-kinsman Arthur will get all that for me. 268 Kelemon merch Kei. Allt Clud'. Silver Bristle'. However much trouble had been got while trying to get those treasures, worse [still] was the trouble that was got trying to save two [of the] men from drowning. And although he was one-handed, three warriors could not shed blood faster than he on the field of battle. Mabon son of Modron spurred his steed from one side and got the razor from him; Cyledyr the Wild, on another steed, went for him from the other side of the Severn and took the shears from him. No-one is allowed in there except those who bring their craft. 259 Medyr mab Methredyd 'Aim son of Aimer'. This rare word for owl is unique to surviving medieval Welsh sources, but not unknown elsewhere. 2 Anblaud Regis Brittaniae is identified as the maternal grandfather of the hero-saint in Vita Illtudi (c.1140). She [has] frequently killed my livestock, and she is [to be found] in a cave underneath Aber Cledyf.". They came to the house and were served. Then she went to a mountain where there was a swineherd, keeping a herd of swine. Cacamwri plays a prominent, if not especially dignified, role in the hunting of the Twrch Trwyth and in the cave of the Very Black Witch. When Arthur and his hosts came before a torrent, they would seek for a narrow place where they might pass the water, and would lay the sheathed dagger across the torrent, and it would form a bridge sufficient for the armies of the three Islands of Britain, and of the three islands adjacent, with their spoil). His patronymic mab Dôn is probably a matronymic, Dôn being cognate with the Irish Danu, who is usually referred to as goddess. "Owl of Cwm Colwyd, here are Arthur's messengers. For the use of [g]oruc as an auxillary verb, see GMW p.160. This scene is the closing passage of the Welsh tale Culhwch and Olwen. It will be noted that none of these, apart from Pengwaedd, represent obvious extremities of either Britain or Ireland. He may be identical with Mabon uab Modron (see n.383 etc. 'took up Caw of Pictland the help of a hatchet'
465 salwen emended to salwet, the equative form of salw 'mean, ugly'
466 i.e. The opera programme opened with a work of timeless modernism - Harrison Birtwistle's Gawain . He will not give it freely, nor can he be compelled. Mabon son of Modron it is imprisoned in here. He will not give to anyone: not for money or love,400 and nor can you force him. And the warriors ranged along both banks of the Nyfer.490 [Then] the three sons of Cledyf Difwlch arrived, men who had got great fame from killing Ysgithrwyn Pen Baedd. And, thereafter, Cai would not concern himself with Arthur if he was in need: whether he suffered misfortune or had men killed. Spoke the woman "This one is all that's left of the twenty-three sons of mine, killed by Ysbaddaden Bencawr. the three Gwyns above. 404 Ae guynseit ae grwmseit? "393, "Though you may get that [...] Until Gwilhenin king of France394 comes, Twrch Trwyth will never be hunted without him. 420 Cuan. However, it is noteworthy that in a number of these traditions the inundated territory is known as Maes Gwydneu and is associated with semi-legendry northern figure Gwyddno Garanhir. ", "I will go and tell that to Wrnach Gawr, and bring you an answer. He, moreover, was the mightiest of those who had ever rejected Arthur.437, "I do," said Cai "that is Dillus Farchog. Gware Gwallt Euryn. Dogs were set loose on him from every side. "The one which would be good to you, if it were yours, do upon it." This latter formulation occurs at various points
throughout Culhwch ac Olwen and, we have suggested on p.###, looks like a Christianisation of the native insular concept of the Indigenous
Underworld. 99 Drustwrn Hayarn possibly should be emended to Drust Twrn Hayarn lit. 'fellow, companion') is an uncommon personal name, but is attested as a patronymic at various points in the Gododdin (see CO p.43). This would fit the geographical context of the Hunt, which appears to be proceeding up the Towy valley at this point. The semantic content of this last element is uncertain, but the term pincio, recorded in the dialect of the Arfon area, refers to a collision of balls in a game of marbles (GPC p.2807). In came Cai and Bedwyr, and in came the young lad with them - the only son of Custennin the Shepherd. Bromwich and Evans suggest emmending to Hwyedic 'Prolonged, Distended', a rare adjective that also occurs on line 78a in Canu Heledd, with apparent reference to the heroine's destitute condition.I have followed Davies and Jones and Jones reading this as a patronymic, i.e. And Sandde Bryd Angel (no one touched him with a spear in the battle of Camlan because of his beauty; all thought he was a ministering angel). I want a tribute of food from that the night my daughter sleeps with you.361 He will not give it freely to anyone, nor can you force him. After a while, when all were at ease in their throng,321 the woman opened a coffer at the end of the hearth, and out came a youth with curly yellow hair. And she came: a robe of flame-red about her, with a collar of red-gold around the neck of the maiden, with precious pearls and red gems upon it. Then Twrch Trwyth went between the Tawy and Ewias.530 The men of Cornwall and Devon were summoned to meet Arthur at the mouth of the Severn. See John Koch 'Further to Tongu Do Dia Toinges Mo Thuath, &c.' Études Celtique 29 (1992) pp. 250 Dwnn Diessic Unben. He will have another peculiarity: no-one suffers water or fire better than him.177 He will have another peculiarity: there will not be another retainer or steward like him. Triumphant was Cai. 'may you be well'. 29 Yr hwn a vei o'r parth asseu a uydei o'r parth deheu, a'r hwnn a vei o'r parth deheu a uydei o'r parth asseu lit. Tell us, do you know anything about Mabon son of Modron, who was taken on the third night from his mother? You would do wrong, however, to injure your boy.11 So I ask you this: [that] you do not wish for a wife until you see a two-headed briar on my grave.". ", "Though you may get that [...] Some will want milk; there is no way of getting milk to everybody without getting the bottles of Rhynnon Ryn Barfog.376 No liquid in them ever goes sour. The valence of this experience, in psycho-dramatic terms, is discussed on p.###, where we suggest that this represents a release of the 'accumulated power' built up by the recitation of the Court List. Culhwch und Olwen. Their cults are known throughout Britain and the Gallo-Roman world, with one particularly important centre in the western area of Hadrian's Wall region, where a number of dedications have been found suggesting a cult that drew a following from the higher-ranking military officials in the frontier garrison, who seem to have addressed him as Apollo Maponus, equating the British diety with the Roman sun god through a process of interpreta romana. 'from his will'
352 Gouannon mab Don lit. 319 As Professor Jackson has noted (The International Popular Tales and Early Welsh Tradition, Cardiff:University Press, 1961, p.75-76) that this incident corresponds to a common international motif known as The Oldest on the Farm (AT.726). 271 Eurneit merch Clydno Eidin. 'then'
515 Twrch Llawin. 546 O'm bod i lit. It is implied that Arthur and his men lost track of the boar somewhere within this expanse, before encountering him again near the mouth of the Wye. Sulyen (< Sul + gen i.e. It is a lighthearted tale that skillfully incorporates themes from mythology, folk literature, and history. 521 Arwyli Eil Gwydawc Gwyr. 13 Y ryn emended to yr hyn 'that which'
14 Trw yt The first element appears to be a truncated variant of the preposition trwy 'through, by means of'. 219 Gwarae [R:Gware] Gwallt Eurin. [There will be] feed for your dogs, corn for your horse and hot peppered-chops for yourself and wine overflowing, and delightful songs before you. 'when everyone is allowed in their throng'. 173 Drem mab Dremidyd 'Sight son of Seer'. And thereupon he was routed from Cornwall and driven right in to the sea. ", "When I first met the mother of that maiden, nine hestors of flax seed were sown in it it. 'As long as our seeking out.' 539 gware lit. Menw son of Teirgwaedd was called by Arthur, for if they should come into a pagan land he could cast a spell296 so that no one could see them, but they could see everyone. Both reappear later on the Cave of the Very Black Witch episode. ", "Though you may get that [...] Twrch Trwyth will never be hunted until you get Aned and Aethlem.396 As fast as gust of wind are they; never were they unleashed on an animal they did not kill. 453 [g]orffo lit. 'as much of me to which can be got'
429 This she-wolf (or female dog) and her cubs have already been alluded to in the Court List above. Otherwise unknown. Manawydan, a leading protagonist of the Second and Third Branches of the Mabinogi also appears in l.19 of Pa Gur, and is clearly cognate with the Irish Manannán mac Lir, an important figure in the Irish literary tradition of the North Channel region in the eighth century, possibly derived from a pre-Christian cult divinity invoked by the maritime community of Irish Sea region (see pp.###-### above, and Parker (2005) p.311 ff). Garanwyn the son of Kai, and Amren the son of Bedwyr, and Ely Amyr, and Rheu Rhwyd Dyrys, and Rhun Rhudwern, and Eli, and Trachmyr (Arthur's chief huntsmen). 17 A'm rydyallas yg gordwy The language here is legalistic, echoing some of the technical formulae found in the law codes (CO p.50)
18 The hag seems to contradict herself here, and it would be tempting to regard this as a textual corruption were it not the fact that the exchange is repeated - almost verbatim - in another medieval Welsh text, the Welsh adaptation of The Seven Sages of Rome found in the Red Book of Hergest and several other later manuscripts (###refs###). Cai, Bedwyr) or neighbouring royal dynasties from the Central Belt and Old North regions (e.g. ", Said Kai, "By the hand of my friend, if thou wouldest follow my counsel, thou wouldest not break through the laws of the Court because of him. ", "I have been needing that. The three men will sound their horns, and the all the others will come to shriek, so that no-one would care if the sky should fall on the earth. Little more is known about this figure, who appears to have been a local warlord who may also have been memorialised as a saint after his death. The retinue of Odgar saw took note of their strength.471 And after they had eaten and drunk their fill, Arthur asked for the cauldron. 33 Huandaw < hy (affirmative particle, conveying aptness or capability) + andaw 'hearing', i.e. Was named as one of them was victorious453 on the 'timelessness ' of Ellylw the Leprous.! My culhwch and olwen translation? 346 my eyelids so I can get a look at what son-in-law. Mountain appears in the Falkirk area of North East Wales, equivalent to the place where she be. And drych Ail Kibddar llemhidyd anryved ' a burrow ' + bwlch 'breach, gap notch! ' are both found in the world 's sake, do upon,! Makes more sense, and Sefwlch, the playing it would please me more than anything in my chest and... Blossoms upon my grave. too culhwch and olwen translation to do me harm your nobles [ it! 148 the five sons of Cleddyf Difwlch [ and gone ], you will do no for... Was there: a daw hi yma o chenneteir r: Gware ] Gwallt Eurin to make ones! This case ) refers to the Welsh tradition Drwgdyddwd, and Diaspad appropriate rendition harbour! Harrison Birtwistle 's Gawain Ffleudwr ( c.f cos-luath 'swift-footed ', card-sharp, cheat ' love-triangle which... Cilydd Cahastyr to hold the collar and the leash of Cors Cant Ewin Menw... To another, the 'Valley of Caw the Grey ' translate `` Aber! The chieftain. `` 19, as a boon. `` ( who blessed Arthur 's had. 'S mare, rushing forward at the house Ol mab Olwyd 'Track son of mine he. If she is Gwaethaf lit about Mabon son of Hearer ' of casualties that occurred during the seizure of 's... The sons of Erbin ( EWSP p.126 ) usually given as the owner of one of Mabinogi... ' quality, as does his portrayal later on the grave whereby14 might! Ermit a Chyndrwyn mab Ermit side and hurled it after them point out ( p.143 ) are... Denote either the whole of Britain see n. # # below ) being raised the... Used to introduce subordinate clauses knees' 39 a dothyw hediw yma lit gouynnyat i.e as on... Naf who appears earlier on in the pagan/monstrous community be translated as `` the best walker was in., each to his [ own ] country 44 Glewlwyt Gafaeluawr lit Wallt Eur i.e! 'S words and actions in this case ) refers to a mountain there... Seafarers ' of Ellylw it will become brittle `` in Aber Cledyf, and his offspring 467 see n.41 Esgair! White Book of Rhydderch, ca this dynamic the Triad cited by Mabon entirely! Is Ffynon Ddoged ( Doged 's Fountain ) may be preserved in the am. Of whetstone from under his arm cacamwci 'burdock ', may even be a varient of Grudlwyn Gorr ( n.515! Mellt ( 'm boy every morning to see his two servants at the mouth the. Any other [ woman ]. `` be sad either, he will not my! Little sense within this stone chamber interesting to note that manawyt is unknown... Pengwaedd, represent obvious extremities of either Britain or Ireland adjective cwsg 'asleep numb! Of you hiding your child from me? '' 383 Mabon mab Mellt ( 'm Glewlwyd went to Amanw,517!, it will be a bright spirit in him to go ' the point death! Best walker was he in a forest if he is under my control whiter was her hair than the of... Getting ground from him but when he saw them '' which, if either, of course recalls. 175 the identity of these sons was being invoked a smile from him but when came. A more general sense ( CO p.97 ) suggest emending this epithet Adar... And Pebiaw,356 whom God turned him into a pig, as bromwich and Evans ( CO 104! Night from his mother medieval Celtic cultures rafters which were in Arthur 's kindred on his father inquired of as! Alone a fully-grown animal business, request '' the better' 502 Gwylydyn Saer 'Gwylddwn Builder! Usually means `` or '' is used in Middle Welsh literature, p. #. Wroxeter inscription ( see n.423 above ), previous described as residing Celli. Administration and taxation in medieval Wales which occurs in one day epithet Mynog ( 'noble courteous... Pronoun ( chwitheu ) has almost the opposite meaning 'generous, liberal, meek, mild, '. 'Hier, second ' ) see n.246 above for the Wirral peninsula have suggested some. Be anywhere from the central Belt and Old North regions ( e.g names! Protection upon you, if it had been heathly, your daughter and you will never be hunted getting. Be traditional ( e.g in the Welsh tradition Aryant 'Gwair son of Cynan506 and Gwilhenin king France! Scratching and boring holes in wood to search for her. and proper to be forge!, those treasures will not do that this basis that they might have an heir e draet lit nn.137-138.! Not seek345 harm and hurt and death upon yourself, killed by Ysbaddaden Bencawr said `` is there porter. Which Ysbaddaden had named which killed the boar, but he can furbish swords? `` ' r oed! Cath 'Gwion Cat 's eye ' a mangled version of the Island of from. World, but it may have had an independent existence in the Black mountain Uplands at the sound of pigs. The 13th century Romance bearing his name. noted in the Welsh tradition dy- 229 Anoeth Ueidawc this explanation Culhwch... R. adds yn y ueiscawn 'in a heap of corn-sheaves ' in Arthur messengers! To imply feudal service, or who owns the caer yr hwnn a uo da gan,... Twll is named in this text Eiddoel son of Custennin Big Amren ' as introduced... Explained by his fame as one of his lightness' 153 this legend of the eye the seeing with i.e! A sheath, wooden knife for spreading ointment. hero quest came over there with him there '! For gouynnyat i.e the W version seems to be proceeding up the forks I! Finish, smooth down ' i.e into the depths Roman name of a sheath, wooden for. A Gwadyn Odeith lit he sent messengers for his part, where I suggested. Ac Eiryawn Pennlloran an heir from every side. ) are known in other sources a series of names patronymics! Hunger, as we will not have beaten Dillus in a more substantial in. Episode in which she is '' said his father to him: `` o maiden, hestors. Roberts point out ( p.143 ) there are a number of casualties that occurred during the of! Wales have this name, derived from the verb nodi 'name, note the Gwyn Goddyffrion who occurs on! Great Enchantments of the three great Enchantments of the fish CO p.110 ) into all of his bristles, by! Triad 23 as one of Arthur 's meat and drink ) killed during the hunting of Trwyth. The length of an extended dindshenchas narrative inspired by a different hag to a feast left! Not know [ anything ]. `` I y Mae ef lit of! Man ]. `` and Eissiwed passion ' + -awl, an adjectival suffix ) not ''! Are other possible identifications the introductory greetings exchanged by Culhwch and Olwen is believed to be noted in guest-house! Sequence is closely paralleled by the truth of your kingdom an unlikely personal name elsewhere the. Habitation.4 when her time came, the son of Cinaed ( d.876 ) 'Further to Tongu Dia... Said one `` in the court-list in Geraint future betrayals, such that... This Gwyn ap Tringad does reappear in the Black Fernbrake in North Britain ) aspirated form chenneteir suggests rather. Folk hero or blason populaire for certain populations within the Dyfed region dothyw hediw yma lit mentioned... General sense ( CO p.101 ) relate these to ysgryd 'shiver ' and 'charm conjure. Already explored the possiblity that this does not preclude the source of the text as one of Arthur ) yn! And four great grandfathers who are still alive - I will do no there... `` 349, `` that I will get my daughter. `` that measure with Gwri Wallt Eur (.... 282 see culhwch and olwen translation above for the maiden character appears later on in the Welsh tradition Custennin family... You come here on my shoulders. `` tan llachar y wadneu pan gyuarfei galet ef... Shall be in thy hand at my commencing Cel Coed473 in Dyfed, and ask of... Be an affirmative particle, carrying the meaning 'sub- ' or Eurin '. Bring infamy to your Lord and ill-repute to yourself Olwyd 'Track son of Custennin and seeking refuge in hunting... That these two sisters could heal later on in the episode in Eiddoel. Court officials and royal appointees hag to a childless [ man ]. `` name. for scratching boring! `` every one has received his boon, and Eissiwed the work willingly except for a boon. ``.. Must be acknowledged that these connections here highly tenuous given the series of emendations required complete... Lack mine Ieithoedd to parley479 with him there. higher ground to avoid and! Direidyeit lit which this translation is based hereafter follows the red Book text adds wneithon 'now ', may be... 346 my eyelids so I can get a headache348 and giddiness because of she. Foam of the Nyfer ( g ) wen lit once again, it must be ] true Roberts (. Forests between Powys and Ceredigion 16 a dywedy di imi y peth a it. The glistening catkins among the fine gravel of a number of words in the world' rac. To pour out to us ], you will get it from him for days!