7. Copper sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. Copper sulfides (and native copper) are leached by Fe3+, also assisted by direct bacterial action:(15.11a)2FeS2+7O2+2H2O→2Fe2++2SO42−+2H2SO4(15.11b)O2+4Fe2++4SO42−+2H2SO4→4Fe3++6SO42−+2H2O(15.11c)Cu2S+10Fe3++15SO42−+4H2O→2Cu2++10Fe2++12SO42−+4H2SO4, From: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011, Mark E. Schlesinger, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011. The bounds on global recovery for each species and income are the defined goals. Adjacent cells are connected in series and several hundred cells would be contained in a typical electrorefining tankhouse. Further evidence that the assignment of the so-called "valence hole" should be to the S2 units in these two formulae is the length of the S-S bonds, which are significantly shorter in CuS (0.207 nm) and CuS2 (0.203 nm) than in the "classical" disulfide Fe2+(S2)2− (0.218 nm). Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain anodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). Conductivities range from (10−10…10−8 [Ω cm]−1) with nylon and polyester. Section 1: Identification . The data are approximate. Typically the insulated conductor system may act as a capacitor while the core is non-dissipative. It is designed to give soluble sulfate calcine rather that insoluble oxide calcine. If at room temperature the highest stability was shown by CuCl32−(aq), at higher temperatures it is CuCl2−(aq). A decrease of the total concentration of copper below 0.01 M results in the area of stability of CuCl2−(aq). Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. One typical series of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: FIGURE 15.4. Therefore, it appears that the application of E–pH diagrams to chloride systems is more complicated than in the case of the sulphate systems owing to the fact that the chloride form a large number of species, electropositive, electronegative and electroneutral. FIGURE 30.7. Preparation of Advance Electrolyte for Cobalt Electrowinning∗. Research done by Havlik (2008) and others (Peters, 1977) has demonstrated that cubanite is not stable in a hypergenic environment and in the presence of water and oxygen is converted at a fast rate into chalcopyrite according to reaction equation: whereas the formed chalcopyrite in the same environment will undergo further conversion into bornite according to reaction equation: Bornite is a more stable copper and iron sulphide in a hypergenic environment than cubanite and chalcopyrite. SECTION 1. Typical concentrate grades are 30% Cu (higher with chalcocite, bornite, and native copper mineralization). Figure 8. Pourbaix diagram of the Cu–Fe–S–O–H2O system at 25 °C. It destroys algae and bacteria caused by growing algae in swimming pools in addition to preventing athlete’s foot, a fungal infection that grows in between the toes in warm climates (such as an indoor swimming pool). White metal compounds are low reactive and thus useful for bi-component fibre manufacturing. Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound made by combining two elements, sulfur and copper. It has a narrow range of stoichiometry ranging from Cu1.997S to Cu2.000S. Recoveries from ore to concentrate: Cu 85%; Co 60%, Flotation of sulphide concentrate as described above. CuS is a moderate conductor of electricity. Both minerals and synthetic materials comprise these compounds. 7. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and these are placed in the cell. Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte. From the practical viewpoint in leaching, these equilibrium systems are used for theoretical examination of leaching of copper sulphides or copper and iron in the solutions of sulphuric acid, or using iron-sulphide, this is a relatively frequent case and is also utilised in industry, either for pressure leaching or leaching in normal conditions. Table 1. The flotation is made selective by using reagents, which make the Cu-sulfide minerals water-repellant (hydrophobic) while leaving the other minerals wetted (hydrophilic). Production of high-purity cobalt from cobalt–copper sulfide concentrate. This bond length difference has been ascribed to the higher bond order in (S-S)− compared to (S-S)2− due to electrons being removed from a π* antibonding orbital. Extraction of sulfide ores is covered in more detail in Copper Mining and Extraction: Sulfide Ores (11–14), but is introduced here because an important by-product of this process is used for the extraction of oxide ores. Most of the copper ores mined today are oxide or sulfide ores. But it is more often used to clear sewer lines of invasive tree roots, which can burst pipes and lead to costly repairs if left untreated. In addition, the majority of its members are semiconductors. Antifungal agent for topical use 4. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. TABLE 30.4. Sulfate is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. Copper sulfate, also known as bluestone, is an inexpensive herbicide and algaecide with a variety of applications. In order to determine these effects, detailed simulations of the behavior of the main mineral component of the metallic inclusions in the slag, i.e., cubanite, were carried out. Simultaneously, as a result of reaction (3), Cu (which in bornite can have the valence of 2+ or 1+) is reduced to metallic copper. The anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Figure 8. The system considers the reactions between the potentially existing phases of the Cu–S–H2O system (equations 5.185–5.208) and ions and substances containing chlorine, Table 5.8. Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an “anode slime” which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. Leaching systems using copper chloride as an oxidation agent are also being introduced. Most of us realize that mining sulfide ores to source copper threatens clean water and public health. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple acts in a catalytic manner in these reactions (shown for elevated-temperature reaction conditions where the sulfur-containing product is sulfate, rather than the elemental sulfur that forms under ambient conditions): Under some conditions (especially biological leaching), elemental sulfur that forms as a reaction product can be converted to sulfuric acid: A Pourbaix diagram for the Cu–Fe–O–S system is shown in Fig. Purchased in the form of small white or dyed blue crystals, this commonly found product can be used to clear potentially harmful algae out of ponds, lakes, and pools. TABLE 30.2. Their crystal structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal layers of monosulfide and disulfide anions with Cu cations in trigonal and tetrahedral interstices. In comparison with the previously discussed diagrams, the diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system are characterised by the presence of a large area of stability of univalent chlorine complexes of copper. General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. This table describes concentrate production. Fig. It has the chemical compound Cu2S. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967899100046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967899100150, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080968094100309, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856174220000161, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845690052500139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818036079, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694074500050, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043152601888X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818035943, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595195501258, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011, Production of Cu Concentrate from Finely Ground Cu Ore, Mark E. Schlesinger, ... William G. Davenport, in, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), Hiskey, 1993; Lazarro & Nicol, 2003; Nicol & Lazarro, 2003, Production of Cobalt from the Copper–Cobalt Ores of the Central African Copperbelt, Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in, Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, Based on a Site Visit to the Nkana in 2008, Production of Copper and Copper Alloy Powders, Stanislav S. Naboychenko, ... Oleg D. Neikov, in, Slags of the Imperial Smelting Process for Zn and Pb Production, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Thermodynamic Studies of Heterogeneous Systems in an Aqueous Medium, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Introduction and the Significance of Electrometallurgy, 22nd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Felipe D. Sepulveda, ... Edelmira D. Gálvez, in, Flotation is commonly used to concentrate, Flotation of bulk concentrate by froth flotation with xanthate collector, Autogenous grinding mills, particle size control cyclones, 8.5 m, 45% Cu, 4% Co concentrate. TABLE 30.6. IDENTIFICATION. In the event of pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the stability region, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths. INHALATION: Remove to fresh air, keep warm and quiet, give oxygen if breathing is difficult. The stability of bornite is determined by a relatively narrow range of pH values and very narrow range of Eh values, nearly irrespective of the seasonal temperature (Figure 2): Figure 2. pH–Eh diagrams for Cu–Fe–S–H2O system. J.W. Precipitation with MgO and redissolution produces cobalt-rich, high-purity electrolyte. Precious metal impurities in the anode are not oxidized, at the anode potentials employed, but fall to the bottom of the cell as an ‘anode slime’ which is occasionally harvested from the cells and sent for recovery of precious metals. Product Name: Copper Iron Sulfide Product Number: All applicable American Elements product codes, e.g. High-purity cobalt metal is electrowon from cobalt sulfate electrolyte. In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as … Sketch of a copper electrorefining cell from Evans and DeJonghe (2002). Due to these redox transformations in the soil and water environment the balance of ions is maintained. Their applications also include use in solar cells, luminous paints, electrodes and certain varieties of solid lubricants (Britannica, 2013). In dump leaching, the pH of the solution is maintained between 1.5 and 3.0, partly to preserve bacteria that promote and accelerate the oxidation of purity and copper sulfate minerals and also to prevent hydrolysis of iron salts. In solutions with a high copper content above 0.1 M Cu the copper chloride CuCl is stable. In Chile, Las Luces plant has been using sweater for their operations since 1994 [9], and more recently Esperanza mine from Antofagasta Minerals [10]. The activity of copper-containing substances in the solution is 10−3 M and the activity of sulphur-containing substances is equal to 10−1 M at a total pressure of 0.1 MPa. Industrial details are based on a site visit to Nkana in 2008. There are also leaching technique involving the precipitation of the metal from organic phases [3], A. Harlin, M. Ferenets, in Intelligent Textiles and Clothing, 2006. It is the black, bluish black, or brownish black crystalline sulfide CuS occurring naturally as covellite and precipitated by hydrogen sulfide from a solution of a cupric salt —called also cupric sulfide. It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs. The copper content of the solution varies from less than 1 g/L to several grams per liter. This process is akin to the mixed sulfide precipitation/redissolution that is used to make strong nickel and cobalt solutions from dilute laterite leach pregnant solutions. General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. K. NowińskaA. This is cast into slab-like anodes. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). 25 °C – pH=5.7÷9.2 (∆pH=3.5); Eh=−0.56÷−0.31 (∆Eh=0.25). It is found in nature as the mineral chalcocite. This stability is confirmed by Eh–pH diagrams (Pourbaix, 1978) plotted for a Cu–Fe–S–H2O system for the following conditions: temperatures typical for the climate prevailing in Poland (−5 and +25 °C). Sketch of a copper electrorefining cell from (Evans and DeJonghe 2002). There is a resemblance to the cell of Figure 7. CAS#: 22205-45-4 %: 100. Copper sulfides can be classified into three groups: Monosulfides, 1.6 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2: their crystal structures consist of isolated sulfide anions that are closely related to either hcp or fcc lattices, without any direct S-S bonds. Copper sulfate is also used in order to help with public health and safety. Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. The copper ions are distributed in a complicated manner over interstitial sites with both trigonal as well as distorted tetrahedral coordination and are rather mobile. [13] This apparent discrepancy with the X-ray photo-electron spectrum data simply highlights the problem that NMR has in assigning oxidation states in a mixed-valence compound. Otzi the Iceman (3300 BCE) was found with an axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper. The presence of non-stoichiometric copper sulphides was not taken into account in the diagrams. The product is electrowon cobalt metal, 99.65–99.7% Co. Cobalt recovery from concentrate to metal is ~62%. Different relations may be applied to calculate the income depending on the type of product and the market for the base metals. The input is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte ~20 g/L Co2+. The leaching of copper sulfide and copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and iron sulfate. The universal technique for this concentration is froth flotation of finely ground ore. Froth flotation entails attaching fine Cu-sulfide mineral particles to bubbles and floating them out of a water–ore mixture. Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. Some copper sulfides are economically important ores. At very high pressures, a copper disulfide, CuS2, can be synthesized. Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use in the United States since 1956. 6. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and fresh anodes are placed in the cell. Roasting of Cobalt–Copper Sulfide Concentrates to Soluble Sulfate Calcine. Industrial Cobalt Electrowinning Details∗. Copper Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. /Anemia was able to be corrected/ by the addition to the diet of ash from animal or vegetable sources. Investigations of covellite (CuS) indicate that there are other metastable Cu-S phases still to be fully characterised.[1]. Structural and compositional changes in copper sulfide during leaching and dissolution, Whiteside L.S, Goble R.J, The Canadian Mineralogist; (1986);. [11][12]. Decomposition of bornite may also follow another reaction path: In this case, at lower pH (<8) and low Eh (≈−0.40…−0.35) H2SO3 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S4+ (in H2SO3), and further decomposition follows: Copper, for its part, is reduced (bornite contains both Cu2+ and Cu+) to Cu+, whereas iron does not change its valence, as Fe2+ ions are formed. Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Copper based nanoparticles have shown excellent anticancer activity as well as have been long used for radio-imaging. On-stream particle size and on-stream X-ray fluorescence analyses are key components of this automatic control. Most minerals require the application of both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+. Evans, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2003. Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, 2011. Typical Cu sulfide recoveries to concentrate are 85–90%. The chemical properties of copper sulfide are provided in the table below: Fig. Adjacent cells are connected in series and several hundred cells would be contained in a typical electrorefining tankhouse. Ingredient: Copper (I) Sulfide. Its principal employment is in agriculture, and, up to a generation or so ago, about its only uses in industry were as a mordant for dyeing and for electroplating. Whatever their source, copper sulfides vary widely in composition with 0.5 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds. Consequently, the stability region of bornite in the summer season (25 °C) will be narrower than in the winter season, as the ranges ∆pH and ∆Eh decrease with rising temperature in the series of −5, 5 and 25 °C. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper that is cast into slab-like anodes. This substance is mainly used as a pesticide in agricultural or nonagricultural practices to help eliminate bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails and fungi. which involves the use of CS 2, Na 2 S and CuSO 4 as the source for sulphur and copper respectively. Copper sulfate is used in the preparation of Paris green, to kill mosquito larvae that cause malaria. Certain metal salts like copper sulphide and copper iodide are predominantly utilised for electrically conductive coatings on fibres, as they are easily processable using ordinary textile technology. SAFETY DATA SHEET . E–pH diagram of the Cu-S-Cl-H2O system for 100 °C, the activity of sulphur-containing substances of 10−1 M, the activity of copper-containing substances of 10−1 and 10−2 M at the unit activity of chlorides. Although many textbooks (e.g. Elemental copper found in nature can be leached by either oxygen or ferric ion: All copper sulfides require the presence of Fe3+ and O2 as oxidizing agents for leaching to occur. Copper sulfide is a copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper and sulfur. Copper /is/ essential for erythropoiesis in rats fed a milk-based diet. Depending on their composition, these copper sulfides are either semiconductors or metallic conductors. DATE OF LAST REVISION: 07/09/15. Felipe D. Sepulveda, ... Edelmira D. Gálvez, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2012. However, only low conductivities can be obtained. Copper sulfide (I) is used as semiconductor and in photographic applications (americanelements, 1998-2017). At these concentrations of Cu, Fe, and S in ground water the stability regions of cubanite and chalcopyrite are nonexistent, which is accordant with reactions (1) and (2). Experimental procedure involves the reaction of 15 ml Triton X-100, 25 ml Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. 8. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper. Different stoichiometric compositions can be obtained by changing the redox atmosphere of the synthetic environment. [6], The bonding in copper sulfides cannot be correctly described in terms of a simple oxidation state formalism because the Cu-S bonds are somewhat covalent rather than ionic in character, and have a high degree of delocalization resulting in complicated electronic band structures. 3. Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Sulfide and Mixed Sulfide-oxide Ores. Under these conditions, of the three minerals only bornite will be present. W. G. Mumme, R. W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist; (2012); 50; 423-430. One path is as follows: In this case, at high pH (>8) and low Eh (≈−0.59…−0.40) H2SO4 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S6+ (in H2SO4), and further decomposition follows: On the other hand Fe2+ of bornite is partly oxidized to Fe3+ forming 2FeO⁎Fe2O4 (Fe3O4 in the diagram). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. CU-FES-02-C , CU-FES-03-C , CU-FES-04-C , CU-FES-05-C CAS #: 1308-56-1 Relevant identified uses of the substance: Scientific research and development Supplier details: American Elements 10884 Weyburn Ave. In the mining industry, the minerals bornite or chalcopyrite, which consist of mixed copper-iron sulfides, are often referred to as "copper sulfides". A variety of fibres have been used including nylon, polyester, wool and acrylic for antistatic applications such as carpets. Zdzisław, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2017. This division of copper into species depends not only on temperature but also on the total activity of copper in the solution. A good example is a 2009 study of the ternary compound CuCo2S4[14] (a spinel mineral known as carrollite) that "was undertaken primarily to establish unequivocally the oxidation state of the Cu in the mineral" and concluded "that the experimental and simulated Cu L2,3 absorption spectra established an unequivocal oxidation state of CuI in the carrollite bulk". We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The use of copper dates back more than 10,000 years. Ingredient: Copper (II) Sulfide. In this example, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated. Dyes - Copper sulfate can also be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. Prominent copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S (chalcocite) and CuS (covellite). Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. EC#: 215-271-2. The equilibrium diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at temperatures of 25, 100 and 150 °C are shown in Fig. 1. Alternatively stainless steel cathode blanks are used as described above under Copper Electrowinning. The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air, Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A. N. Lamb R.N., Rosenberg R. A., Moran D., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 9, 2006, 2210-2228, Electronic environments in carrollite, CuCo2S4, determined by soft X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/villamaninite.pdf, Copper sulfides mineral information and data, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_sulfide&oldid=995885077, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 11:54. Note the sulfate roasting, the precipitation of cobalt hydroxide and the redissolution of the cobalt hydroxide followed by cobalt electrowinning. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). The pregnant solution goes to solvent extraction to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning. Also occurring at the anodes is the oxidation of iron impurities to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. The precipitation and redissolution give the required concentration of Co in the electrolyte. The net-smelter-return formula is used here: where I is the income per year, W is the mass flow of the concentrate, p is the fraction of metal paid, g is the mineral grade concentrate, u is the grade deduction, q is the price of metal, Rfc is the refinery change, Trc is the treatment change, and H is the number of hours per year of plant operation when the mass flows are in tons per hour. Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia. COPPER SULFIDE . Copper sulfate solutions may serve as an antiseptic and as a source for depositing copper on metals. Typical operating conditions for copper electrorefining cells are (Habashi, 1998): 100–200 A m-2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 Vwith an electrolyte of 40 g l-1 of copper and 150–200 g l-1 of sulfuric acid. It is also used in manufacturing high-purity metallic copper. In contrast, recycling copper typically uses 90% less energy. The valence of copper in sulphides and selenides: An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study, Folmer J.C.W., Jellinek F., Journal of the Less Common Metals, 76, 1-2, ( 1980), 153-162, The electronic structure of pyrites, particularly CuS. world, some projects consider the use of seawater to process coper ores by flotation in countries such as Chile, Australia and Indonesia [8]. Major uses: Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides: Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic: copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide: Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green: Control of fungus diseases (see Table B) Correction of copper deficiency in soils 5 °C – pH=5.9÷10.3 (∆pH=4.4); Eh=−0.58÷−0,30 (∆Eh=0.28). The estimated flotation stage recoveries and the feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1. 15.4. Copper sulfide minerals require the use of acid and an oxidizing agent to break the mineral lattice and release Cu2+ into solution (Sherrit, Pavlides, & Weekes, 2005). EC#: 244-842-9. J.W. Curing \"Proud Flesh\" on Horses. Copper sulfide finds applications in the following: Solar cells; Superionic conductors; Photodetectors; Electroconductive electrodes; Photothermal conversion devices; Microwave shielding coating; Active absorbents of radio waves; Gas sensors; Polarizers of infrared radiation; Chemical Properties. 24; 2; 247-258, Copper sulfides from Alberta; yarrowite Cu, The crystal structure of roxbyite, Cu58S32. The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. 5.14. The anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Fig. In many cases, the copper sulfate test is used as a pass/fail examination of a passivation process on a part or stock material, but it can also be used as a test to determine if passivation is necessary in the first place. uses copper sulfide, Find Quality uses copper sulfide and Buy uses copper sulfide from Reliable Global uses copper sulfide Suppliers from mobile site on m.alibaba.com Finally, in relation to the study of the RVO and PAX collector mixtures, it was found that a mixture of 60 g/t of RVO and 40 g/t of PAX in the absence of foaming agent presented the best results in terms of copper recovery (98.66%) and the selectivity index with respect to pyrite (2.88) and silica (14.65), improving PAX selectivity and recovery compared to the use of RVO as the only collector. For instance, anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as a dehumidifying agent. Stanislav S. Naboychenko, ... Oleg D. Neikov, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders, 2009.