louis xv father

The King was deeply affected, but, strictly observing court protocol, he did not attend her funeral, because she was too far below his rank, and, though mourning, carried on court business as usual. In contrast to his father, Christian VII received his service in Paris during a two-month sojourn in France’s capital. [40] French and Bavarian armies quickly captured Linz and laid siege to Prague. The marriage of Francis of Lorraine and Maria Theresa took place in 1736, and the other exchanges took place in turn. Le Roi de France perçu par ses Sujets, 1680–1750" ["Disparaging, Hoping, Taking on Reality: the French King as Perceived by His Subjects, 1680–1750"]. The two men advocated removing as many restrictions as possible from the economy, to encourage greater production and trade. However, the best French commander, Maurice de Saxe, had died two years after the War of the Austrian Succession, and the new French commanders, Charles, Prince of Soubise, the Duke D'Estrees and the Duke de Broglie detested each other, and were rarely willing to cooperate. When on 5 May 1749 it was presented for formal registration to the Parlement of Paris, the assembly composed of high nobles and wealthy Parisians who had purchased seats, it was rejected by a vote of one hundred six to forty nine; the majority asked for more time to consider the project. He also downplayed the importance of the French Navy, which would prove be a fatal mistake in future conflicts. [16], In 1719, France, in alliance with Britain and the Dutch Republic, declared war on Spain. The birth of a long-awaited heir, which ensured the survival of the dynasty for the first time since 1712, was welcomed with celebration in all spheres of French society. The King walked up the steps to his rooms at the Trianon, where he found he was bleeding seriously. Fleury dictated the choices to be made, and encouraged the king's indecision and flattered his pride. A few months later, on 16 January 1756, Frederick the Great of Prussia signed the Treaty of Westminster, allying himself with Britain. In the same year he established a military engineering school. The Jesuits departed, and were welcomed in Prussia and in Russia. 1. With the end of the war, Louis decided to take the opportunity to reduce the debt and modernize the system of taxation of the Kingdom. [7] In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance (right of remonstrance) – the right to challenge the King's decisions, which had been removed by Louis XIV. [77] His new finance minister, Étienne de Silhouette imposed new taxes aimed at the wealthy; taxes on horses, carriages, silk, paintings, coffee and furs, and other luxury goods. [115], Louis was a major patron of architecture; he spent more money on buildings over the course of his reign than Louis XIV. [133] Ultimately, he wrote, Louis XV failed to overcome these fiscal problems, mainly because he was incapable of pulling together conflicting parties and interests in his entourage. Louis, Dauphin of France (4 September 1729 – 20 December 1765) was the elder and only surviving son of King Louis XV of France and his wife, Queen Marie Leszczyńska.He had a younger brother, Philippe, who died as a toddler. [28], Fleury showed the King the virtues of a stable government; he kept the same Minister of War, Bauyn d'Angervilliers, and controller of the currency, Philibert Orry, for twelve years, and his minister of foreign affairs, Germain Louis Chauvelin, for ten years. It used art as propaganda on a grand scale. The king's chaplain refused to give him absolution unless the king renounced his mistress, which he did; Marie-Anne left the court but was reunited with the King a few months later. [103], The foreign affairs post had been left vacant by Choiseul, who acted as his own foreign minister. [5], The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen. Following the advice of his preceptor Fleury, Louis XV appointed his cousin Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, to replace the late Duke of Orléans as prime minister. The second son, the Duke of Anjou, born in 1730, died in 1733. "[106] The Archbishop instructed him to prepare for the final rites. Although aware of the forces of anti-monarchism threatening his family's rule, he did not do anything to stop them. Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710 during the reign of his great-grandfather Louis XIV. The King went into mourning and for a time turned to religion for consolation. Updates? A royal decree ordered all the clergy to submit a declaration of their revenue by 17 February 1751, but that day passed without any declarations given. Tension grew between the Duke of Bourbon and Cardinal de Fleury over the King's favor. [72], In France, the Parlements had taken the lead in attacking the Jesuits. [89] Through her acquaintances with the nobility, she was invited to Versailles, where the King saw her and was immediately attracted to her. He first became attached to one of the ladies of the Queen's court, Louise Julie de Mailly, who was the same age as he and from an ancient noble family. [63], On 5 January 1757, as the King was getting into his carriage in the courtyard of the Grand Trianon Versailles, a demented man, Robert-François Damiens, pushed through the King's guards and attacked the King, stabbing him in the side with a small knife. The Treaty was quickly negotiated and signed by all the parties in September and October 1748. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé),[1] was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. Madame Pompadour herself accepted it as a preferable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! On 18 May, Fleury assembled a new alliance combining France, Prussia, Spain and Bavaria, later joined by Poland and Sardinia. God, who made you King, will give you all the guidance you need, as long as you have good intentions. He also received support from Voltaire, who wrote, "It seems better, and even more useful for the court of France to think about the happiness of its allies, rather than to be given two or three Flemish towns which would have been the eternal object of jealousy. Born on February 15, 1710, Louis XV was king of France for 59 years, from February 1715 until his death in May 1774. Because his official ministers knew nothing of le secret, Louis’s foreign policy became paralyzed with confusion. The view of many historians is that Louis was unequal to the high expectations of his subjects. Between 1727 and 1737, she gave the king ten children, eight girls and two boys, of whom one survived: the Dauphin Louis (1729–1765). To bring the war to an end, Fleury and Charles VI negotiated an ingenious diplomatic solution. "Denigrer, Esperer, Assumer La Realite. The opposition to Unigenitus was particularly strong among the members of the Parlement de Paris, the assembly of the nobles. He travelled with the King to the Palace of Fontainebleau. The young Mozart came to Paris and wrote two sonatas for clavecin and violin which he dedicated to Madame Victoire, the King's daughter. Louis also learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. Louis often cited a Latin maxim declaring, "if anyone who asks by what means he can best defend a kingdom, the answer is, by never wishing to augment it." Under Choiseul, the government, rather than the officers, took the responsibility of training, giving uniforms, and training soldiers. When the Dauphin became excited at the sight of so many dead enemy soldiers, the King told him, "You see what a victory costs. If you think Louis XV was a bad guy, you can’t blame it on his parents—they didn’t live long enough to help raise him. However, the King's favor turned to Jeanne Bécu, the comtesse du Barry. The Tsarina of Russia immediately marched her regiments into Poland to support her candidate. The first-born daughter, called Madame Premiere, was married to the infant Philip of Spain, the second son of Philip of Spain and Elisabeth Farnese. "[137], Jeffrey Merrick wrote in 1986 that Louis XV's weak and ineffective rule accelerated the general decline that culminated in the French Revolution in 1789. English historian William Doyle wrote: The political story....of the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, by contrast, had too often been scorned, and therefore neglected, as a meaningless succession of petty intrigues in boudoirs and bedrooms, unworthy of serious attention when there were economic cycles, demographic fluctuations, rising and falling classes, and deep-seated shifts in cultural values to analyse. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Another ally of France, Sweden, also risked being divided between Russia and Prussia upon the death of its King in 1771. The Regent disgraced the stubborn and vain Villeroy in 1722, depriving the king of whom he almost considered as his father. [85], In January 1766, while the King was still mourning the death of the Dauphin, the Parlement of Brittany issued another rejection of the King's authority to collect taxes. In 1747, the Dauphin married Maria Josephina of Saxony, who gave birth to the next three kings of France: Louis XVI, Louis XVIII, and Charles X. In addition, at the age of fifteen (1777), she received the further amount of 12,000 livres as a renewed pension. France's mediation in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire led to the Treaty of Belgrade (September 1739), which favoured the Ottoman Empire, beneficiary of a Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Habsburgs since the early 16th century. That evening he was still feeling ill, and sent for the Court physician, Le Mariniére. He was called "The Beloved" (French: le Bien-Aimé). Orry managed, in the last two years of Fleury's government, to balance the royal budget, an accomplishment never again repeated during the rest of the reign. They were married on 1 September 1768, and then, without spending the night with her, Guillaume retired to his home in Languedoc. The King held them responsible for not preventing the assassination attempt, and their government displeased Madame de Pompadour. Louis began construction of the Church of Saint-Geneviève, now the Pantheon (1758–90) He also constructed monumental squares and surrounding buildings in the centers of Nancy, Bordeaux, and Rennes. His minister of the Navy and household of the King, the Conte de Maurepas, was in office the entire period. His failure to provide strong leadership and badly needed reforms contributed to the crisis that brought on the French Revolution. Most of the members of the Parlement of Paris were on a virtual strike, refusing to render justice or approve the King's decrees. Instead, the Maréchal, who detested the Austrians, made an agreement to join with the Prussians against Austria, and the war began. Secret French agents were stationed in major European capitals and ordered by the king to pursue political objectives that were frequently opposed to his publicly announced policies. She ceased to be the King's mistress in 1750 but remained his closest advisor. The possibility of a new war came just as France was undergoing a new confrontation between the King's government and the Parlement of Brittany, which once again refused to recognize the power of the King's government to impose taxes. He drafted his own will, writing: "If I made errors, it was not from a lack of will, but from a lack of talents, and for not having been supported as I wished to have been, particularly in matters of religion. As a son of the king, Louis was a fils de France.As heir apparent, he became Dauphin of France.However, he died before ascending the throne. The first measure was an issue of bonds, paying five percent interest, to pay off the 36 million livres of debt caused by the cost of the war. [35] Fleury was less energetic in his actions to restore the Polish throne to Stanlslaw, who was blockaded by the Russian navy and army in Danzig. It became his political testament. This new king, Louis XV, was born in 1710, five year before the death of his grandfather, the Sun King. Popular legends at the time described it as a kind of harem, organized by Madame de Pompadour, where a group of women were kidnapped and kept for the King's pleasure. Louis formally ratified the treaty on 23 February, on the same day that his statue was unveiled on the Place Louis XV (today the Place de la Concorde)[81], The winter of 1763–64 was particularly harsh; Madame de Pompadour contracted pneumonia, and died on 15 April. To defend its territories. Louis XV, king of France from 1715 to 1774, whose ineffectual rule contributed to the decline of royal authority that led to the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789. On 1 February 1757, the King abruptly dismissed both d'Arnouville and d'Argenson, and exiled them to their estates. When the Duc de Broglie learned that the British were planning to tax the citizens of the British colonies in America, he wrote to the King: "It will be very curious to know what the result will be, and if their execution doesn't result in a Revolution in those states. Although Madame de Pompadour’s favourite, Étienne-François, Duke de Choiseul (foreign minister from 1758 to 1770), restored France’s military strength, the failure of Louis’s secret diplomacy in Poland enabled Russia, Austria, and Prussia to partition Poland (1772) and virtually eliminate French influence in central Europe. [116], The King, the Queen and her daughters were major patrons of music. On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. Thus Louis Augustus was the King of France, Louis XV and his wife Marie Leszczynski grandson. France had constructed Fort Duquesne to defend their frontier against the indigenous Americans; Britain sent the young George Washington with a small force to construct his own fortification, Fort Necessity, nearby. The civil justice system came to a halt. Marie-Louise and Philippe both died in childhood, an all too commonplace tragedy at the time. The first son, born 4 September 1729, became the dauphin and heir to the throne, though he did not live to rule. All these little girls with no education will not take it from me. In 1755, the British seized 300 French merchant ships. This was a complete reversal of France's historic conflict with Austria, which had been underway for nearly two hundred years, and it was shocking to many in the French Court. The Cardinal de Fleury tried to persuade him to confess and to give up his mistress, but without success. Choiseul sowed a strong dislike for DuBarry, as did Marie Antoinette, who arrived in Versailles and married the Dauphin on 16 May 1770. Following the doctrines of Quesnay and de Gournay, Louis's controller of finances, Henri Bertin, created a new Society of Agriculture and an Agricultural Committee within the government, comparable to those existing to support commerce. The King of Prussia had died on 31 May and was succeeded by his son Frederick the Great, a military genius with ambitions to expand Prussia's borders. Louis XVI was the grandson of Louis XV.He became Dauphin in 1765 and inherited the throne in 1774 at the age of 20. Martinique fell to the British in 1762. In India, the French colony at Pondicherry was surrounded by the British, and surrendered the following year. [45], While the new tax was supported by many, including Voltaire, it met immediate and fierce resistance from both the nobility and the church. He was the creator of the unpopular "Vingtieme" tax (1749), which taxed all citizens, including the nobility, at the same rate, and also freed the prices of grain (1754), which initially greatly increased agricultural production. Most of the Parlements, in regions which produced grain, supported the policy, but others, including Paris and Rouen, were highly critical. As the third son of the dauphin of France (heir apparent to the throne), there were two people in line before him for the throne after his grandfather Louis XV—his older brother and his father. The King of Poland and Elector of Saxony, Augustus II, was dying, and his official heir was Stanislaus I Leszczyński, the father of the Queen of France. But his brother, who was always favored, died aged nine, when Louis … [117] The King himself, like his grandfather Louis XIV, was taught to dance ballet but danced only once in public, in 1725. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. Louis XV had several illegitimate children, although the exact number is unknown. By the end of the year only the Parlements of Besançon, Douai, and the governments of Colmar, Flanders, Alsace and Franche-Comté, plus the Duchy of Lorraine, run by the Queen's father, the former King Stanislaus, permitted the Jesuits to function. A decade after Frederik V received his green Sèvres service, his son and successor Christian VII travelled to Paris and received an equally grand Sèvres service from Louis XV. The German-born British King, George II, who was also the Elector of Hanover, joined the war on the side of Austria and personally took charge of his soldiers fighting the French in Germany. Because his parents and his only surviving brother had all died in 1712, he became king at the age of five on the death of Louis XIV (September 1, 1715). "[114] The most important musical figure of the reign was Jean Philippe Rameau, who was the court composer through the 1740s and 1750s, and wrote more than thirty operas for Louis and his court. On the surface it was the most peaceful and prosperous period of the reign of Louis XV, but it was built upon a growing volcano of opposition, particularly from the noble members of the Parlements, who saw their privileges and power reduced. For the next twenty years she was the King's confidante and advisor, helping him choose or demote ministers. The French army won the surrender of the British forces of the Duke of Comberland at Closterseven. In the beginning of Louis's reign, the Duke of Orléans continued to manage the government, and took the title of Prime Minister in August 1723, but while visiting his mistress, far from the court and medical care, he died in December of the same year. All but two of the daughters died before the Revolution began. William Doyle, "The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, by Colin Jones". He ceded New France in North America to Great Britain and Spain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. The elderly Cardinal Fleury had too little energy left to oppose this war. At the same time, they signed a secret treaty with Charles III of Spain engaging Spain to declare war on Great Britain if the war was not over by May 1762. The faculty of the Sorbonne, then primarily a theological college and a center of Jansenism, demanded clarification from the government. The fluctuation of grain prices would eventually become a factor in the French Revolution.[70]. First, his mother caught the measles. When the Royal Council blocked the pursuits of the Parlement, the Parlement wrote a protest to the King, declaring, "Sire, your Parlement cannot recognize any intermediate power it and your person; no, your Council has over the Parlement no authority, superiority, or jurisdiction. Cardinal Fleury was chief minister from 1726 until his death in 1743, at which time the king took sole control of the kingdom. Aphrodite Lucie Auguste (Versailles, 8 March 1763 – Artonne (Puy-de-Dôme), 22 February 1819). Halley's Comet finally passed the earth in April 1759, and caused enormous public attention and anxiety, but no floods. [18] Montesquieu and Voltaire published their first works, and the Age of Enlightenment in France quietly began.[19]. In 1759 the British seized Martinique and Guadeloupe in the West Indies, and captured Port Louis and Quebec. [135] Guy Chaussinand-Nogaret wrote that Louis XV's tarnished reputation was created fifteen years after his death, to justify the French Revolution, and that the nobility during his reign were competent. [60], Louis declared war on Great Britain on 9 June 1756, and success seemed certain. The true glory is to spare it. Louis was also eager for a quick settlement, because the naval war with Britain was extremely costly to French maritime trade. The British had established a settlement in the islands, which were also claimed by Spain. [125] Jerome Blum described him as "a perpetual adolescent called to do a man's job."[126]. In spite of some popular opposition, the new judicial system functioned effectively until the king’s death and might have saved the Bourbon monarchy from the path that led to revolution if his successor had not gratuitously abandoned the reform. It was made in 1757, a year which saw the crushing defeat of the French army by the Prussians at the Battle of Rossbach and the assassination attempt on the King. After the death of the Madame de Pompadour, several women in the court sought to replace her, including the Duchess of Gramont, the sister of the Duke of Choiseul, the King's chief minister. Many of his subjects prayed for his recovery during his serious illness in Metz in 1744. At birth, he received the level of importance of the Duke of Berry's title, which he always wore his father until December 20, 1765's death. On 28 January 1752, the King instructed the Grand Council to change the administration of the Hospital without the approval of the Parlement. The baptism of Louis, Comte de Narbonne-Lara is another indication of that paternity. A reader asked about Louis XIV’s father: Has anyone given serious consideration to the possibility that Henri d’Effiat, Marquis de Cinq-Mars, was the biological father of Louis XIV? [61], In August Frederick of Prussia made a lightning strike into Saxony and on 5 November 1757, though outnumbered by the French nearly two to one, decisively defeated the army of the Prince de Soubise at the Battle of Rossbach. He was responsible for creating the first school for engineers in France at Mézières (1749–50); thanks to the trained engineers, France had the finest system of roads and bridges in Europe. [31], The Government continued its policy of religious repression, aimed at the Jansenists and the so-called "Gallicans" in Parlements of nobles. Listen, consult your Council, but decide yourself. While the Parlements of Burgundy, Provence and Artois bowed to the King's demands, Brittany and Languedoc refused. Acknowledging that he was committing adultery, Louis refused thereafter to go to confession and to take the sacrament. He responded on 31 January 1761 that the Parlement's complaint "contained principles so false and so contrary to my authority and with expressions so indecent, particularly in connection with my Chancellor who only explained to you my wishes... that I send your letter back to you. 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