This means that if a correlation between richness difference and the replacement component of the BAS framework is observed in an empirical data set, this would reflect a meaningful ecological pattern and not a methodological constraint. Variation among European beetle taxa in patterns of distance decay of similarity suggests a major role of dispersal processes. Nested distributional patterns are generally thought to have a component deriving from beta diversity which is independent of replacement processes. Taxonomic and functional β-diversity of ants along tree plantation chronosequences differ between contrasting biomes. For instance, the BAS framework uncovers the importance of past glaciation events in explaining present‐day patterns of species replacement in the North American freshwater fish fauna. Presently, the most popular methods for measuring beta diversity are similarity/ dissimilarity coefficients such as Jaccard index and Sørensen index. Landscape-scale drivers of mammalian species richness and functional diversity in forest patches within a mixed land-use mosaic. 2004; Currie 2007) and, more specifically, identical dissimilarity values can be the result of different processes (i.e. Beta diversity patterns derived from island biogeography theory. We also evaluate whether previously reported tests of monotonicity between indices and ecological processes are informative to assess the performance of indices. alpha diversity). More generally, for any fixed number of shared species, in the BAS framework the replacement component remains constant when species are added to the richest assemblage, while it decreases with increasing richness difference in the POD framework (Baselga 2012: figure 2). We are grateful to José C. Carvalho, Pierre Legendre, Dénes Schmera and three anonymous reviewers for comments to a previous version of this article. Partial match indicating whether the Jaccard or Soerensen family of beta diversity measures should be used. Mismatching streetscapes: Woody plant composition across a Neotropical city. The aforementioned differences in behaviour between the respective components of BAS and POD frameworks make them respond monotonically or not with respect to different processes in each case. Beta-diversity is central to concepts about what controls diversity in ecological communities. If not specified, default is Jaccard. 9% of the variation in β−3 and βrich, respectively (Table 3). other definitions: Equivalent to the russelrao() function in Legendre. where n is the number of species and d ij is the biological distance between species i and j. sA can be standardized by normalizing the d ij and dividing the sA by n(n-1).The result is a value in the interval [0,1]. Beta diversity is slightly higher for ecoregions of 5000–99,999 km 2than for ecoregions of 100,000–5,000,000 km . However, the property we are discussing here is a different one and refers to the independence of the replacement component on the difference in species richness between sites ¦b–c¦ and not on total richness (a+b+c). raref. Equivalent to 1 - S_2 in Legendre & Legendre. shared species in each vector. For Damming affects riverine macroinvertebrate metacommunity dynamics: Insights from taxonomic and functional beta diversity. 2). and y. b is the number of species that are present in y but Environmental constraints on the compositional and phylogenetic beta‐diversity of tropical forest snake assemblages. Metric names that end with _binary are calculated based on presence or absence alone. species, counting over each sample individually. details, please see the discussion on the "double zero problem," in section . This is a great advantage when compared with the Shannon index (or Hill numbers) of species diversity. Online software and R codes are available to facilitate computations. 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