body waves and surface waves pdf

%PDF-1.4 The first type of body wave is called the primary wave or pressure wave, and is commonly referred to as P-waves. Surface waves are typically generated when the source of the earthquake is close to the Earth’s surface. /BBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] Surface waves are the slowest moving of all waves, so the most intense shaking usually comes at the end of an earthquake. >> The rest of the energy, which is most of the energy, is radiated from the focus of the earthquake in the form of seismic waves. These waves are similar in many important ways to the familiar waves in air generated by a hand-clap or in water generated by a stone thrown into water. The advantage of this method over others using body waves is that it is very rapid and does not require manual intervention, so that it can be made into an automatic process suitable for real-time purposes. /Resources << The separation parameters d and Id, in time and frequency domain, respectively, have been proposed. Body waves are of two types: compressional or primary (P) waves and shear or secondary (S) waves. /MediaBox [0 0 362.8347 272.1261] /ProcSet [ /PDF ] >> t�=�}��`457�G�Q�D /FormType 1 These waves cause shaking that is felt, and cause damage in various ways. t�5�O�n�(�Te�����m!4「"]�Uͫ���)�e*�j���bW�Ձ��=���c/�]J��ħ]�T��/ݤ��G�*�U���J�R���!RQ�Ń�E�p��$xi�ZiP��$�'}2d^���XԀVW)�Q�n0芊�:��o��l���VnB�GZ�҇�KZ�N���.�1l0 Ҫ������ �lC#���~�4[Nj�%.� h��#�+4�C��h�F�{:�%j���� ��ߡݞ���@#z�#�h����q#-h�S�������`�H��ң1�іq���̶]]%�∲@�Y�m�%u���6-T�oj¡�ᒁ��uTt�5v6P9�rLWY�}9/��Ui�pԘ.���AҨ�F���"R�]�������Q������G�?���OHuxD�N�qa�� ��na��ަ���īc�������J�07�wG��t��}!6�Je��x�-#P=����"x���N�������>>C��� ,a_���C. P- and S- waves are called \"body waves\" because they can travel through th… /Subtype /Form /Trans << /S /R >> Much of the motivation for joint inversion derives from two factors. x���P(�� ��endstream /Subtype /Form x���P(�� ��endstream <>>> endobj Surface waves are something like the waves in a body of water: They move the surface of the earth up and down & right and left. x� endstream %���� \g��K�$[n&����D�2U#T�I5�"OO|��F��v����N���! Our preferred model, which based on the MDC fault plane, local JMA hypocenter and calibrated alignments of body and surface waves, revealed a complex rupture process. /BBox [0 0 8 8] /PTEX.FileName (./figs/anulogo.pdf) stream –No flow through an impervious boundary or body. kinds of body waves, and two kinds of surface waves. Surface waves on the Seismogram Surface waves are the largest amplitude signal on the wave train Surfaces arrive after the P and S waves, because they travel along the surface layers of the Earth where velocities are lower. /Type /XObject P and S waves are body waves. Among the many types of seismic waves, one can make a broad distinction between body waves, which travel through the Earth, and surface waves, which travel at the Earth's surface. /FormType 1 stream : 48–50: 56–57 Other modes of wave propagation exist than those described in this article; though of comparatively minor importance for earth-borne waves, they are important in the case of asteroseismology. /FormType 1 Real-time analysis of earthquakes can be Body waves are of two types: Primary waves (also called P-waves, or pressure waves) and Secondary waves (S-waves, or shear waves). >> S��W���ut�R�y��"��buXEh�}�촴kF�숟C�F����pGNF��Y���`. >> endobj P WAVES The … Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. /Length 15 /Matrix [1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 1.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000] 11 0 obj /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Coords [0 0.0 0 272.12549] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 272.12549] /C0 [1 1 1] /C1 [0.75 0.5 0.25] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> /FormType 1 endobj /BBox [0.00000000 0.00000000 129.00000000 53.00000000] /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Resources 50 0 R /ExtGState << Seismic Waves is an on-line program which illustrates . >> /Filter /FlateDecode Thereby, waves do appear in various forms and differ in their characteristics. 12 0 obj << /R7 53 0 R The first kind of body wave is the P wave or primary wave.This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to 'arrive' at a seismic station. These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves. waves together to the finite fault source study. Although they move even more slowly than S-waves, they can be much larger in amplitude and are often the most destructive type of seismic wave. stream Introduction. x���P(�� ��endstream free surface waves we need to understand the boundary conditions on the free surface, any bodies under the waves, and on the sea floor: –Pressure is constant across the interface –Once a particle on the free surface, it remains there always. /Subtype /Form /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Coords [3.99998 3.99998 0.0 3.99998 3.99998 3.99998] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 3.99998] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [] /Encode [0 1 ] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> x��ZYo�F~7����!�}� ��#�,6X����b��Lˊe�#ʞ��ߪ�"%e`�0�}TWW}�U5����w߽���/������"I��췫���w�'�������sU&�w�g,)��%��E!�JTy%��G���U�,��"Y�Sm�~>?��~�owIV�?n�L��U��t�?.����}�:����\����#,�K��k�J��}N��o����Il����T��e���W�D�A��lV��0O����l&��_���'>�S2�����2Uc��o��`q��]�DzOg�Hu��������� ��A��@}�4j�U���'�v�f"}6��n�Q�7q�`]�B�n�� Surface waves Introduction As a result of geometric spreading in 2-D, the energy carried by surface waves decays with distance r from the source as 1/r; this is in contrast to 1/r2 for body waves, which is why they are usually much less prominent on a seismogram. 47 0 obj << Some of the energy is expended in breaking and permanently deforming the rocks and minerals along the fault. /Subtype /Form P-waves are able to travel through both sol… 19 0 obj << Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. ���q���vm�x��oP�k�]�n\Ť�6��|ǯv��އ�Miќiٰ�(��`��5J'��~�J �فyn��������^�?ص_ff;������ N�5����"#̾tZ�m�JØ�$�vd��YQ��V���nh�E��aaqc�s=��v S� �E�B�riA�yN�$�� ������]��4��Ri5���sV��?�� j�ȟk�v&e���װ3:d8�'�ہ���LH2drLh����i�"w�=�ТL�&�E�;�(�ߤ��!Zjy�V�P�Ty�bI�AL�a���T �`҃�yg�%�O7�{��9�'�i ��v���F�Z��v��F��b0��D�B�(�u��W��� ����N��B �Z���ЁCg��+X`�$� o_�߁n��Gw�ĤÙ�PM�3�C��'l!6���+H�q^��-�g4�llxr�%�M�[캧B�V �A��Yoe���p.�ȥ�Gހ�m�TS4����l�o���4������-��|_��y�xG� �e��!�7����Tk��垩�֢ �3@|�3��>�"�{" Because the volumes explored by surface and body waves are signi cantly di erent, the knowledge of >> endobj A body wave is a seismic wave that moves through the interior of the earth, as opposed to surface waves that travel near the earth's surface. >> >> endobj These oscillations are generated by strong earthquakes. a. travel more rapidly than body waves b. produce most of the damage to buildings during earthquakes c. are the first waves initially produced in an earthquake d. are the first waves to arrive at a seismograph station after an earthquake ____ 65. fRi6g���ߤ�!�j J�.O��ʈR�� The rupture initiated slowly at a depth of 23 km. stream how waves propagate from an earthquake hypocenter to seismic stations across the globe. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /Resources 48 0 R Body waves Introduction P- and S-waves are referred to as body waves because they are transmitted through the volume (or body) of the material, as apposed to travelling along the surface. On the other hand, surface waves propagate only at the interface between two different media, like the interface between Earth and atmosphere (i.e. /Resources 18 0 R Surface waves usually have larger amplitudes and longer wavelengths than body waves, and they travel more slowly than body waves do. LINEAR FREE SURFACE WAVES FALL 2003 °c A.H. TECHET 1. $��獶!����az�s�[?zbr�Ǧ���D�Xރ�A�P���\���Q�,��W ��ɶ;?����$*"b}�Rt�䢌�s����;�����:$o,�HH �������?Gf��eb��E"���eL�6�($K�8k|��[.-n�(�Xn`�.^��ί���-pxs1e)��|��C�d�P�ȱP ����,*��%�1��+�%����뇼��#Y�c�� ���s&"Wd�0\��94B#�O��M63�c�����6V �a��������܁���=!��E�(�rZ��e�.���G�wd� ��Cbv�y@��cK���dh�#��g6��)�du��(�� `�C�dC�x�N�o �^B /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /Type /Page 14 0 obj << The solution was updated twice in three days. >> endobj �;f e1�2�j�!P��b�m'dq)��k���RH����b�x�:A�G�s"8M3͓�Cg As a longitudinal compressional waveform, P-waves move in the same way as sound waves. • Surface waves propagate at a speed lower than body waves and are recorded after the P and S waves. /Length 54 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode x���P(�� ��endstream the surface of the Earth). �a�r�$�^����l��vVic�Owo?gʧ������1Sv��YJ�D���vT�n5��&�=�"]6�bO �s7�@�$ ��H���P�%9�j�$����I�|�[o�w��(�]�Ӿ�2��}����[׵��H^��h�\ �7W 2���~��/��d�~�����m������ȬW�e���hq������L������L���n���u���vQ���]�,�����F'���s��DŽZiqH�cH�{���N��q:)��{�?���Sendstream stream In order to determine an exact equation for the problem of free surface gravity waves we will assume potential theory (ideal °ow) and ignore the efiects of viscosity. /Resources 49 0 R • Surface waves propagate along a boundary surface. 2 0 obj endobj /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 3 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [7.99997 7.99997 0.0 7.99997 7.99997 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [true false] >> >> /FormType 1 As you might imagine, only body waves can give us any information about the deep interior of the Earth. 50 0 obj << Two types of surface waves, known as Love waves … /Length 1396 Multiscale adjoint waveform tomography for surface and body waves Yanhua O. Yuan 1, Frederik J. Simons , and Ebru Bozdağ2 ABSTRACT We have developed a wavelet-multiscale adjoint scheme for the elastic full-waveform inversion of seismic data, including body waves (BWs) and surface waves (SWs). /Type /XObject x��}In.Kvޜ�� A general endobj stream 17 0 obj << This type of seismic body wave travels at the greatest velocity through the ground. It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. Body waves can propagate into the interior of the corresponding medium, whereas surface waves are concentrated along the surface of the medium. /Filter /FlateDecode specific energy density of surface and body waves in a medium containing a homogeneous distribution of point scatterers. Waves propagate out from the epicenter along the surface on a three-dimensional view of the earth. /Length 15 /Shading << /Sh << /ShadingType 2 /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Coords [0 0.0 0 7.99997] /Function << /FunctionType 3 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /Functions [ << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.875 0.75 0.625] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> << /FunctionType 2 /Domain [0.0 7.99997] /C0 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /C1 [0.4375 0.375 0.3125] /N 1 >> ] /Bounds [ 3.99998] /Encode [0 1 0 1] >> /Extend [false false] >> >> formulation used for body waves, except that the surface wave ‘‘ray’’ has a sensitivity that is very wide in depth (Figure 1). Earthquakes radiate seismic energy as both body and surface waves. << /S /GoTo /D [12 0 R /Fit ] >> As discussed all earthquakes are relatively shallow, with the deepest at about 700 km depth. /Type /XObject /Filter /FlateDecode >> /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] When an earthquake occurs, some of the energy it releases is turned into heat within the earth. moment-tensor inversion using regional surface waves. /Length 15 /Filter /FlateDecode P waves are also known as compression waves. earthquake; these are body waves and surface waves. 2001). ��5�Z!YV�,U��;��d&�_�@�Azxx���33��o��{��� ���篷��?�����o�}��z����-���x�i|�>�[�c��~����������������������_�ߎ/��*}���y�s�����yh��^�p#��_�g��m����|ϓeW��b����7��R��vy/-}�r����7��VF���w�;�+(3���|��|�y\���^���Aw��뼑7�5u�=o�����/��^��K��͏��J9�{;#��0�ϓ����8_��c��@[#O.f��v=/�3�\�z"���W��o������r�sȥ}�yM1��Q{�!c{z�V����g���7���>����c�F�>62�9�ӽ��8�Θü�*�'�N��o�9`s�w����1�\��C_b+7�/��������`�@��8�yc���ہ1��y��|�������G��lp�$��Zϴ�9�u���g�9ͳG��8[��2���v>�vB�ٽ=��8+L��Q�;6�5�n���@�?�l�cF�����덽���������s��g��U�ٲ)5̩Չ��c��Г+O0��u��C¢΋���3��\�s>y�ɜ�`?py.~�o؈���?��*@݁���t�ֵ����s��ɸ��,���J���(�4 �wO#���V���꿾��0J:K?���/�w����������3���3�z�,�:�Y�. Free Surface Water Waves z x y y=h(x,y,t) or F(x,y,z,t) = 0 B(x,y,z,t) = 0 Figure 1. ��٘�M���׎&M'Q�%ȵ�v8��.>���0��Z� iqH�ȕ�m�[>�Ѱ�����j�t�֨��(�)�v���(H���k�&���a /Type /XObject 15 0 obj << Free surface water wave problem. endobj This generally causes the worst damage because the wave motion rocks the foundations of manmade structures. then constrained using both broadband body waves and long period seismic waves. /R8 52 0 R 9 0 obj << endobj >> In view of its advantage during the study of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman island earthquake (Ammon et al., 2005), we had developed a quick algorithm to routinely monitor global large earth-quakes by joint inverting body and surface waves. /ProcSet [ /PDF ] /BBox [0 0 16 16] 3 0 obj Both types of body waves are non-dispersive (in purely elastic media). The various problems of fluid motion treated in this article have in common the property that the fluid is subject to a gravitational force. (2) Ground strains caused by body and surface waves have been analyzed for original data and its separated body and surface waves. A. BY JOHN V. WEHAUSEN and EDMUND V. LAITONE l With 56 Figures. In our model, the scattering mean free path of body waves is depth dependent as a consequence of the body-to-surface coupling. At longer lapse-time, the surface waves couple with body waves and the coda eventually reaches an equipartition regime when all the propagative surface and body wave modes are excited to equal energy (Weaver 1982; Hennino et al. stream From the point of view of the spatial concentration of energy, waves can be divided into body waves and surface waves. 48 0 obj << Surface waves _____. Types. /Resources 47 0 R /ProcSet [ /PDF ] stream • There are two types of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves. As their name suggests, surface waves travel just below the surface of the ground. forward and back-scattered surface waves; and (3) body-to-surface scattered waves (Figure 1). >>>> Surfaces wave energy (amplitudes) decay with distance as 1 / r Body wave energy decays as 1 / r2 So at a given distance, which will have more energy ? =���Q�d'�D��xy����d�RBr�Z0�IP���`e��:�mxXK��.��(*9����9��������7�,��&M��� |�P4�2�a�i9�h�� �ax�7�T7�N7۩QX�l�Q�8�U��&�i��~���h�E�$�`��.�#�,]l�����-������t��U �`̬8b��;SIa�3o~�M����dC� �uu���/¢�.UУ��-=�:%��8�S�A�m�q=l)�$���#&�[����2�a�T3��ʬ /Matrix [1 0 0 1 0 0] /PTEX.InfoDict 51 0 R 10 0 obj << Other articles where Body wave is discussed: seismic wave: …elastic waves; two, known as body waves, travel within the Earth, whereas the other two, called surface waves, travel along its surface. <>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 13 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> �~6���dVz�&�Z�Y���� �d�3�݋�W��2��*�19˅��nU>�2-ޓ M:%���6P�x@��N�����m@��e�\�y���ǫ'3���&�f��aZ�a~�|��뗯��2�����ꦭώ2�*:Q���B�y� waves can travel through the earth's inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water. endobj BODY WAVES Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. At the same time viewer can watch waves propagating through a cross-sectional view of the earth. Body Waves The body waves propagate within a body of rock. 16 0 obj << Surface Waves. /Annots [ 20 0 R 21 0 R 22 0 R 23 0 R 24 0 R 25 0 R 26 0 R 27 0 R 28 0 R 29 0 R 30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R ] /Parent 46 0 R Recent forays into the joint inversion of surface waves and body waves from portable arrays (e.g., Friederich, 2003; van der Lee et al., 2001b; West et al., 2004a), are mostly in an embryonic stage, but hold promise of major improvements in imaging with further development. • Surface waves are larger in amplitude and longer in duration than body waves. �1���_��w�[I;��e����\�v�`���^ /Length 15 @QW�N�;:r��g�w���V��K#�i�Z��K,z��K쌗��Y�Vr���ܹ��%�$��آ��>�w�:L����fm�M�2��w����r�Gn����8a��jZ'N��&�m��1X��l����S���\��l�H��~���ZR?T� �Y�a And permanently deforming the rocks and minerals along the fault and frequency,... 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L With 56 Figures d and Id, in time and frequency domain, respectively, have been.! Domain, respectively, have been proposed long period seismic waves it releases is turned into heat the... Cross-Sectional view of the body-to-surface coupling EDMUND V. LAITONE l With 56 Figures earthquake... In strong motion data separated body and surface waves are the most intense shaking comes... Waves and yield information about the earth, body waves and are recorded after the P and S.. As sound waves push and pull the air of all waves, known as waves... Intense shaking usually comes at the same way as sound waves push and the... Body and surface waves and two kinds of surface waves: Rayleigh and Love waves: Rayleigh and waves... Divided into body waves like sound waves they travel more slowly than body waves propagate within a body rock.
body waves and surface waves pdf 2021