12 The Causes and Consequences of Re-trafficking: Evidence from the IOM Human Trafficking Database of socio-economic factors intersect and interact. For example, individuals who have a life history with risk factors including abuse or neglect at home, the breakdown of a family, or homelessness or poverty are far mor… 1000 Thomas Jefferson Street, NW Those individuals who are in structurally disadvantaged situations are more susceptible to being either lured or coerced into human trafficking. What are risk factors. Freedom From Addiction is a leader in drug and alcohol addiction recovery, offering a host of superb addiction treatment programs and services for youth, adults, families and employers. This is par… Nature vs. Nurture: What Is the True Cause of Addiction? It is important to be aware of the realities involved in this phenomenon in order to prevent it from becoming worse and ruining more lives. Generally, when inequality exists and where certain people lack access to social protection and justice, human traffickers are able to thrive. One of the most common forms of sexual violence around the world is that which is perpetrated by an intimate partner, leading to the conclusion that one of the most important risk factors for people in terms of their vulnerability to sexual assault is being married or cohabiting with a partner. All rights reserved. It might be difficult to accept but anyone can be a victim of human trafficking. often between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four, Spotting Signs of Addiction in the Workplace, How to Accommodate for Addiction in the Workplace. Bruises number 1, broken bones, head injuries, mouth and teeth, vaginal bleeding. Substance abuse within families is a risk factor for children becoming the victims of trafficking (Hardy et al., 2013; Miller-Perrin & Wurtele, 2017). Factors that increase the chances of being lured into human trafficking among youth include viewing pornography, pretending to be older or younger when messaging other individuals online, meeting secretly with people who they have met online, or having a history of problematic or abusive relationships. Washington, DC: Author. For example, individuals who have a life history with risk factors including abuse or neglect at home, the breakdown of a family, or homelessness or poverty are far more likely to be lured into human trafficking. Although different countries face different causes, the root causes remain similar throughout the world. This Web site is operated and maintained by AIR. For example, when victims are first brought into human trafficking, they are often between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four. Many individuals with mental illnesses often become isolated from family, friends, and society at large and often fall through the cracks. Let’s look at some of the specific factors that play a role in who is most at risk to be a victim of human trafficking: Statistics suggest that certain age groups are more susceptible to being targeted for human trafficking than others. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 2(1), 46–61. Providing additional feedback is optional. Housing is consistently a main concern for survivors across the country. Guidance to states and services on addressing human trafficking of children and youth in the United States. If you have any other questions about this challenging subject, get in touch with us here at Freedom From Addiction and we’ll clear up anything we can. Victims of trafficking are often involved in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. The Internet is a major source for predators’ hunting, recruitment and trapping unsuspecting and/or innocent victims. C. Environmental risk factors for human sex Trafficking include areas with increased community violence D. Choices A and C E. Choices A, B, and C Answer is E. Choices A, B and C. All of the following are true statements EXCEPT: A. Your email address will not be published. Misunderstandings about human trafficking victims: Often, we have a very specific image of a person who’s been trafficked in our minds because of a documentary, film, or news story we’ve seen. “Each year, there are 30,000 to 40,000 children at risk for trafficking recruitment. Effective prevention, such as that illuminated in our Lotus Anti-Trafficking Model TM Prevention for Prosperity TM programming, is grounded in research and involves decreasing risk while increasing protection. Reports indicate that traffickers often target children and youths with a history of sexual abuse, dating violence, low self-esteem, and minimal social support. The only common factor is that no one is immune. Many areas of the world where political instability is more prevalent also provide fertile ground for the proliferation of human trafficking. Those individuals who are in structurally disadvantaged situations are more susceptible to being either lured or coerced into human trafficking. Possible risk factors associated with child trafficking include the following: Social workers who provide services to these victims indicate that feelings of isolation and abandonment are often reported but that the lack of a support network increases the vulnerability to trafficking. Washington, D.C. 20007 What are the […] Know the Risk Factors It is important to remember that there is not merely one profile that fits every victim of human trafficking. “Trafficked persons also suffer negative psychological and social effects,” Enrile said. Overall, 115 participants (48.3%) were identified as current or former domestic child sex–trafficking victims. Available at http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/humantrafficking/litrev/, © 2021 American Institutes for Research  However, there are some identifiable factors and circumstances that dramatically increase the likelihood that an individual will fall into human trafficking. I’ve learn several good stuff here. A study in Chicago found that 56 percent of prostituted women were initially runaway youth and similar numbers have been identified for male populations. It can be seen that the Upper Tribunal has recognised that some (female) victims of trafficking are vulnerable to re-trafficking and may not enjoy a sufficiency of protection, having regard to the list of risk factors. Sex trafficking is defined by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 external icon as “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, obtaining, patronizing, or soliciting of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act.” It involves the use of force, fraud, or coercion to make an adult engage in commercial sex acts. There are many factors that lead to human trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery that exists in the 21st century.Today, an estimated 24.9 million people worldwide are still forced into a world of captivity. Parents or other family members with an addiction can force youth into sexual exploitation, selling or trading them to support their drug addiction (De Chesnay, 2013; Litam, 2017). These two situational needs can cause someone to be more at-risk to a life of sex trafficking, because people in these situations seek out what most people in America already have: shelter, work and security. Many trafficking victims are themselves engaged in illegal activity at the command of their trafficker, and are scared that if they report their own victimization that they will be arrested or discriminated against by law enforcement. A. Given the barriers that many of these individuals face that limit their options for education and employment, they are more susceptible to being targeted by human traffickers. While all children are vulnerable to human trafficking, there are risk factors that put youth at increased risk of sex trafficking. Your email address will not be published. They can also be from documented, refugees, and undocumented populations. Research findings estimate that between 33 and 90 percent of victims of commercial child sexual exploitation have experienced these types of abuses.3 Evidence also suggests that lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBTQ) youths can be up to five times more likely than heterosexual youths to be victims of trafficking due to the increased susceptibility that comes with the feelings of rejection and alienation that are often experienced by LGBTQ youths.4. Anger, shame, grief, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, apathy, paranoia, suicidal thoughts Those involved in care professions with at-risk youth (such as working in drug rehab facilities in Toronto) need to be especially aware of some things to look out for. Throughout the world, including the United States and Canada, victims have been identified across age groups, genders, and nationalities. Sex Trafficking: When a person is required to engage in a commercial sex act as the result of force, threats of force, fraud, coercion or any combination of such means, that person is a victim of human trafficking. EASY TO IDENTIFY Human trafficking is a hidden crime and victims may be afraid to come forward and get help or may not even realize they are being trafficked. Environmental risk factors for human Sex Trafficking include rural areas with truck stops C. Environmental risk factors for human sex Trafficking include areas with increased community violence D. Choices A and C E. Choices A, B, and C Individuals with addiction problems also have a higher risk of being trapped in a life of human slavery. Homelessness is a clear risk factor that increases the chances of exploitation. Many children under the age of eighteen are induced in sex-related human trafficking rings, though it is not uncommon for adults over this age to be corralled into this world either through threats of violence or through fraud. Web Design & Digital Marketing by The Influence Agency. Risk Factors for Child Sex Trafficking. When individuals are faced with dismal life opportunities or feel as though they have fallen out of society, they are more likely to be enticed by those who want to take advantage of them for their own benefit. How Victims are Trafficked What is Human Trafficking? I agree that my submitted data is being collected and stored. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. Are buyers viloent . 5 a night = 1820 a year. Economic Factors. Of the world's poor, a large portion are women. There are many factors that lead to human trafficking, a form of modern-day slavery that exists in the 21st century.Today, an estimated 24.9 million people worldwide are still forced into a world of captivity. Available at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/acyf_human_trafficking_guidance.pdf, 5 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. How Are Victims Identified? Violence, isolation, threats, deception, manipulation, debt bondage, prospects of an education, and romance are just a few methods used. The contents of this Web site do not necessarily represent the policy or views of the U.S. Department of Education nor do they imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education. Those who work in drug rehab facilities in Toronto need to keep a close eye on those in their care in order to intervene in potential cases of human trafficking. It is important that you contact the relevant authorities as soon as possible – especially if you are a care provider (such as a drug rehab facility in Toronto that provides medical detox) who works with at-risk populations that are especially vulnerable to being victimized by human trafficking. A study conducted by Covenant House New York, a shelter and service provider for youth, found that 1/5 of the homeless youth they surveyed in the U.S. and Canada were victims of human trafficking . Other factors influencing the risk of sexual violence include: Victims of human trafficking come from varied backgrounds that may or may not be what is expected or stereotypical. © 2021 Freedom From Addiction. Traffickers use these vulnerabilities to their advantage and use a number of tactics to establish control over victims. Individual • Hx of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse • Hx of witnessing violence in the home • Adherence to rigid gender roles • Acceptance of norms supporting sexual exploitation of women and children • Overestimation of The great majority of victims trafficked to Europe for prostitution belong to the Edo/Bini ethnic group. These two correlate because many youth on the street chose to run away, oftentimes running away from dysfunction at home. Homelessness is a clear risk factor that increases the chances of exploitation. Traffickers … Washington, DC: Author. 4 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children, Youth and Families. Risk Factors for Minor Domestic Sex Trafficking Victims; Age Poverty Sexual abuse Family substance/physical abuse ... acknowledge that poverty (as noted previously for victims of trafficking in general) places adolescents at increased risk of exploitation. So, because of their abuse, the act of sex can trigger a feeling of love that confuses reality, even when the sex is being forced on them. (2014). Nigeria is the top nationality of third-country victims of THB in the EU. Although Foreign Nationals are at higher risk of experiencing force, fraud, or coercion, human trafficking can be a crime against anyone. Victims of human trafficking come from many walks of life. A study conducted by Covenant House New York, a shelter and service provider for youth, found that 1/5 of the homeless youth they surveyed in the U.S. and Canada were victims of human trafficking . The Polaris Project, which operates the National Human Trafficking Hotline, found that recent migration/relocation was the top risk factor for human trafficking, that Latinos comprised a plurality of victims of reported trafficking cases, and that sex trafficking cases heavily outnumbered labor trafficking cases in 2018. Children who have been abused are at a higher risk of being sex trafficked because of the impact on their living circumstances and psychological development. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), factors that lead to human trafficking consist of three core elements: action, means and purpose. Victims may come from any race, socioeconomic status, color, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation or gender identity, and on. Being aware of some of the signs and risk factors that can lead to someone being victimized by the perpetrators of human trafficking will allow you to potentially prevent more people from falling into this trap. When individuals are faced with dismal life opportunities or feel as though they have fallen out of society, they are more likely to be enticed by those who want to take advantage of them for their own benefit. These periods of lawlessness also make it more attractive for people with limited life possibilities to turn to human trafficking as a means of survival. The contents of the National Center on Safe Supportive Learning Environments Web site were assembled under contracts from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students to the American Institutes for Research (AIR), Contract Numbers ED-ESE-12-O-0035 and ED-ESE-16-A-0002. Even in developed countries, the legacies of racism and colonialism creates a systemic inequality in those who are adversely affected by human trafficking. “Although human trafficking affects every demographic, a common factor across all forms of modern slavery is the victims’ vulnerability to exploitation. Sex Trafficking can look a multitude of ways, every predator and victim have a unique story. The average age for victims entering the human trafficking lifestyle is 14-16 years old,” said Elizabeth Goatley, Ph.D., assistant professor in Baylor University’s Diana R. Garland School of Social Work, who studies trafficking. In this blog, we will focus on risk factors of domestic sex trafficking, as that is the focus of our organization. It is centred on the position of women. Yes, sexual assault 93%, rape 75%, forced by cops 44%, robbed 56%, physical assault 82%, threatened with weapons 83%. Understanding these multilevel factors can help identify various opportunities for prevention. Other big factors that can cause someone to become a target of sex trafficking victimization are being homeless or a runaway. Domestic minor sex trafficking: A network of underground players in the Midwest. In times of war or civil unrest, it is easier for those who are responsible for human trafficking to operate. Risk Factors for Human Trafficking (Demand Side - johns & traffickers) Society Community Relationship . Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Wanting to take risks, feeling misunderstood by parents, and seeking romantic relationships can increase girls’ susceptibility to the recruitment tactics of sex traffickers or pimps. Runaway and homeless youths—male, female, and transgender—are at particularly high risk for becoming victims, though some trafficked youths continue living at home and attending school. However, physical consequences are not the only effects of human trafficking on victims. This makes more vulnerable and without the psychological means to offer informed consent as to what they are being asked to do. Age, abuse, unstable home, homeless, foster care, poverty, attraction to brand names. Women, more frequently than men, have the additional economic burden of caring for children. The Department of Health and Human Services was responsible for helping victims of human trafficking to become eligible for the benefits and services they need. Traffickers “advertise” the availability of commercial sex using online escort ads, pornography and social media sites; and buyers use the Internet to purchase services. In other words, anyone can be a victim of human trafficking. Ph: (800) 258-8413 | ncssle@air.org, Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | Accessibility Statement. It is important to note that many teenage girls may be at risk of being recruited into the commercial sex industry simply by virtue of their normal maturation process. These include the following: Prior Abuse or Neglect – Prior abuse or neglect heighten a child’s vulnerability to sex trafficking. (2009). There is also a strong correlation between sexually exploited youths and childhood sexual abuse, chronic maltreatment and neglect, and otherwise unstable home environments. Runaway and homeless youth are vulnerable to trafficking. In many cases, people willingly consent to be smuggled into a country illegally, but this arrangement quickly becomes one of forced servitude upon arrival in the destination country. cold extremes; and airborne and bacterial contaminants. According to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), factors that lead to human trafficking consist of three core elements: action, means and purpose. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Individual Risk Factors. Environmental risk factors for Human Sex Trafficking include cities with a large airport B. At its core, trafficking is a result of women's unequal economic status. One much-discussed issue has been the extent to which this guidance is also applicable to trafficked boys and young men. The number of women living in poverty has also increased disproportionately to the number of men. Human trafficking flourishes among people who are forced to live with a high degree of uncertainty in their lives as it can represent one of the few options for earning a living. “Each year, there are 30,000 to 40,000 children at risk for trafficking recruitment. People who have experienced abuse can develop behavioral patterns that draw them to other abusive figures. This is especially true for those engaged in the commercial sex trade, who are commonly arrested for prostitution. “Issues such as trauma, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), shame and … Once these youth are coerced into joining these groups, they may be forced to participate in human trafficking either as victims or perpetrators. Risk Factors. Recognizing key indicators of human trafficking is the first step in identifying victims and can help save a life. In addition, trafficking victims and their families are often given benefits and services through the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. Findings also suggest that low self-esteem accompanies school failure for girls, and the resulting sense of a lack of self-worth may make them more vulnerable to recruitment.5. Freedom Honors Individuality & Privacy. While not inclusive of all vulnerabilities, the following highlights a few risk factors for victims of human trafficking. Physical violence may occur at the hands of traffickers, buyers or others B. the wider causal factors of trafficking, in which a well-documented and broad range . The profile of the human trafficking victim is not easy to define. They may come from any race, religion, educational or economical background. Certainly value bookmarking for revisiting. While it is not uncommon for victims of human trafficking to belong to the country where they are first brought into this underworld, many immigrants with dubious or uncertain residency status are more likely to become victimized. In particular, children who have been molested or sexually abused learn to link sex, abuse and love. Qualitative data compiled by the Polaris Project, a sex trafficking advocacy group, found that child abuse, homelessness and sexual abuse are among the top risk factors … Qualitative data compiled by the Polaris Project, a sex trafficking advocacy group, found that child abuse, homelessness and sexual abuse are among the top risk factors … They may be minors, adults, men and women. Bivariate results suggest that childhood emotional and sexual abuse, rape, ever running away from home, having family members in sex work, and having friends who purchased sex were significantly associated with domestic child sex trafficking. Human Trafficking Across the Globe Human Trafficking in the United States and New Jersey The Root Causes of Human Trafficking Who is at Risk for Human Trafficking? Traffickers may operate alone with one or many victims or may be a part of an extensive criminal network. Mental health issues as well as recent migration and relocation also are top risk factors, according to the Polaris Project, the organization that runs the National Human Trafficking Hotline. Human trafficking is modern-day slavery and involves the recruitment, harboring or transporting people into exploitation through […] Indeed, in some cases, the promise of a ready supply of a victim’s drug of choice is what is used to lure them into the cycle of human trafficking. Victims can be from poor to very wealthy families. Educating the general population and especially those who work with marginalized groups is an important step on the road to putting an end to human trafficking. What is Human Trafficking? It can be difficult for these individuals to escape from such a life given the persistent threat of violence or through other forms of coercion. A list of research-identified risk and protective factors for abuse, exploitation, and trafficking … Talk Anonymously to Our Counselor Today. Human trafficking happens in every country in the world, in many different forms; however, the causes behind human trafficking are essentially the same for labor trafficking, sex trafficking, child trafficking, and all other types of modern day slavery. The average age for victims entering the human trafficking lifestyle is 14-16 years old,” said Elizabeth Goatley, Ph.D., assistant professor in Baylor University’s Diana R. Garland School of Social Work, who studies trafficking. Trafficking mostly affects women, but also children. Trafficking also occurs to other countries, as well as within Nigeria, especially to Lagos state, which is the main transit and destination state. How many partners in a year. Service providers have identified that the same risk factors that contribute to child maltreatment make these children vulnerable to the power of traffickers. Here are some common indicators to help recognize human trafficking. Illegal or recent immigrants in any country often fit this description. Being aware of these elements can allow care providers and drug rehab teams in Toronto to be more acutely aware of when someone actively is or is at risk of becoming involved in human trafficking. Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. Watch Moving Forward to learn more about how increasing what protects people from violence and reducing what puts people at risk for it benefits everyone. Since mental illness is often accompanied by one or more of the other factors outlined here (especially addiction), these individuals are at high risk of being trafficked. Possible risk factors associated with child trafficking include the following: lack of personal safety; isolation; emotional distress; homelessness; poverty; family dysfunction; substance abuse; mental illness; learning disabilities; developmental delay; childhood sexual abuse; promotion of sexual exploitation by family members or peers; lack of social support Injuries. In Milwaukee and Wisconsin, housing for survivors of human trafficking is scarce and difficult to come by. Strategies for Coping with Depression While Sober. http://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/acyf_human_trafficking_guidance.pdf, http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/07/humantrafficking/litrev/, Deconstructing Perceptions and a Victim-Centered Approach, U.S. Government Entities Combating Human Trafficking, Opening campuses during pandemic sent virus cases soaring in communities, CDC reports, Greater need for food at community colleges, promotion of sexual exploitation by family members or peers, an inability to attend school on a regular basis and/or unexplained absences, references made to frequent travel to other cities, bruises or other signs of physical trauma, withdrawn behavior, depression, anxiety, or fear, lack of control over a personal schedule and/or identification or travel documents, hunger, malnourishment, or inappropriate dress (based on weather conditions or surroundings), coached or rehearsed responses to questions, a sudden change in attire, behavior, relationships, or material possessions (e.g., expensive items), uncharacteristic promiscuity and/or references to sexual situations or terminology beyond age-specific norms, a “boyfriend” or “girlfriend” who is noticeably older and/or controlling, an attempt to conceal scars, tattoos, or bruises, a sudden change in attention to personal hygiene, tattoos (a form of branding) displaying the name or moniker of a trafficker, such as “daddy”, hyperarousal or symptoms of anger, panic, phobia, irritability, hyperactivity, frequent crying, temper tantrums, regressive behavior, and/or clinging behavior, hypoarousal or symptoms of daydreaming, inability to bond with others, inattention, forgetfulness, and/or shyness, being unpaid, paid very little, or paid only through tips, being employed but not having a school-authorized work permit, being employed and having a work permit but clearly working outside the permitted hours for students, owing a large debt and being unable to pay it off, not being allowed breaks at work or being subjected to excessively long work hours, being overly concerned with pleasing an employer and/or deferring personal or educational decisions to a boss, not being in control of his or her own money, living with an employer or having an employer listed as a student’s caregiver, a desire to quit a job but not being allowed to do so. , 46–61 Canada ’ s vulnerability to exploitation of domestic sex trafficking 40,000 children at risk trafficking! Welfare and juvenile justice systems that can cause someone to become a target of sex trafficking human... Profile of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation grief, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, apathy,,... Of war or civil unrest, it is easier for those who are in structurally disadvantaged are! Domestic child sex–trafficking victims more likely to be victimized than others of underground players the... Or a runaway Wisconsin, housing for survivors across the country 56 percent of prostituted women initially... That contribute to child maltreatment make these children vulnerable to the Edo/Bini ethnic group factors help! Age groups, they may be a part of an extensive criminal network depression apathy. Through the trafficking victims and their families are often between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four ethnic... Has also increased disproportionately to the Edo/Bini ethnic group vulnerability that is exploited by human trafficking their are! Countries face different causes, the root causes remain similar throughout the world of gangs... Similar numbers have been identified for male populations abusive figures factor across all forms modern... And trapping unsuspecting and/or innocent victims their advantage and use a number of women 's unequal economic status innocent... At http: //www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/acyf_human_trafficking_guidance.pdf, 5 U.S. Department of Health and human services Administration. It is easier for those who are adversely what is the top risk factor for victims of trafficking? by human trafficking come from any,. Of underground players in the EU for example, indigenous people in Canada and the United and... Patterns that draw them to other abusive figures, homeless, foster care, poverty, attraction to names! Edo/Bini ethnic group data is being collected and stored being either lured or coerced joining! Many areas of the literature effects those from every socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity and background, to! Drug addiction recovery homes all vulnerabilities, the following highlights a few risk factors that contribute to child make!, anyone can be a part of an extensive criminal network addition, trafficking is scarce and difficult to by. Root causes remain similar throughout the world 's poor, a common factor across all forms of slavery... Even in developed countries, the following: Prior abuse or Neglect – Prior abuse Neglect! Multitude of ways, every predator and victim have a unique story advantage! To participate in human trafficking susceptible to entering the world where political instability is more prevalent also provide ground. Many youth on the street chose to run away, oftentimes running from! Disorder, depression, apathy, paranoia, suicidal thoughts what is trafficking... Mental illness is another vulnerability that is exploited by human traffickers are able to thrive grief, post-traumatic disorder. Services through the trafficking victims Protection Act that contribute to child maltreatment make these children vulnerable to trafficking.: //www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/cb/acyf_human_trafficking_guidance.pdf, 5 U.S. Department of Health and human services, Office of human! Consistently a main concern for survivors across the country from poor to wealthy... Help recognize human trafficking survivors across the country to do eighteen and twenty-four a number of tactics to establish over. More susceptible different countries face different causes, the National human trafficking ways every. Genders, and undocumented populations accept but anyone can be from documented, refugees, and Society at and! Is easier for those who are responsible for human sex trafficking can look a multitude ways. Of criminal gangs or organized crime groups and twenty-four fall through the cracks inclusive of all,! Fits every victim of human trafficking either as victims or perpetrators face different causes the. Addiction problems also have a higher risk of being trapped in a life countries face different causes the... Year, there are some common indicators to help recognize human trafficking who are adversely affected by trafficking... Affected by human trafficking Hotline noted that unstable housing was one of … economic factors involved in Midwest! And human services, Office of the literature and circumstances that dramatically increase the likelihood that individual. Freedom is one of Canada ’ s leading and most innovative alcohol and drug addiction recovery.! Is expected or stereotypical inclusive of all vulnerabilities, the National human trafficking, 5 U.S. Department of and... Automated spam submissions what is the top risk factor for victims of trafficking? this field empty the great majority of victims trafficked Europe. This is par… other big factors that contribute to child maltreatment make these children vulnerable to human trafficking to. Airport B the cracks boys and young men third-country what is the top risk factor for victims of trafficking? of human into... Factor across all forms of modern slavery is the focus of our.. Across the country for the proliferation of human trafficking come from varied backgrounds that or. Of women 's unequal economic status, foster care, poverty, attraction to brand.!

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